Gumii Paarlaamaa Oromoo (GPO)

Oromo Parliamentarians Council (OPC)

 

Baga Nagaan Dhuftan!Welcome to Oromo parliamentarians council!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                       

Bilisummaan Oromoo angoo siyasaan dhugooma

Zakaariyaas Mulataa

Amajjii 2011, Oromiyaa

Seensa

1. Gabiromfamuu saba Oromoo kessatti qooda gantummaa

2. Fincila diddaa gabirummaa ummata Oromoo

3. Hundee qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo

4. Jaarmiyaa Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo

4.1. Jaarmiyaa ABO bara 1973 – 1992

4.2. Jaarmiyaa ABO bara 1992 – 2011

4.3. Angoo siyasaa argachuuf foxoqinsa jaarmiyaa furachuu

5. Xummura

Ragaalee 2

Seensa

Jirenya dhunfaa fi gamtaa acucaa alagaa irraa walaboome geggefachuuf milkawuun BILISUMMAA (BIRMADUMMAA). "Libration is the act or process of liberating or freeing an individual, group, or state from domination26." Alagaan osoo hin to`atamin ofiin ofi jiraachisuuf mirgaa fi angoo hirmannaa qabachuun WALABUMMAA. "Freedom is a right or the power to engage in certain actions without control or interference of others 25." Qabenyaa ofi irratti mirgaa fi angoo qabaachuuf milkawuun ademsaa fi guddinna jirenya walabummaa madaala. Dhibbaa nam-tokkee yookin gartuulee irraa maddun mirga qabenyaa ofitti fayyadamuu sarbamuun gabirummaa nam-tokkee fi ummatootaa dhalcha. Sirnooti daldala ilmaan-namaa fi gabirummaa ummatootaa biyyoota lafaa kessatti babalifamaa turaniru; sababii namooti angoo oli`aane horatan namoota angoon gadi`aanan acucuun seraan hin dangeefaminiif. Sirnni ilmaan namaa akka meshaatti biyyoota lafaa irratti baroota dheraaf gurgursisaa fi bitchisisaa ture seraan digameera. Garuu sirnni gabirummaa ummatoota gutummaatti adunyaa irraa hin buqqaane. Biyyoota yartuu kessatti gartuuleen angooman ummatoota angoon yarooman irraa walabummaa samuun acucanii ofi gaditti bulchuun fufinsaan geggefamaa jira. Ummati walabummaan harkaa fudhatame tokko mirga dubbachuu sarbamuu irraa egalee hanga mirga jirachuu dhorkama. Ummatoota walabummaan harkaa fudhatame kessaa ummati Oromoo isa tokko.

Dhuma jarraa 19ffaa kessa motummaan impaayera Habashaa oli`antummaa angoo waranaan sirna gabirummaa ummata Oroomoo fi ummatoota kibba Itophiyaa irratti gutummaatti dirirfate. Sirna kanas jarraa tokko oliif tikfataa jira. "Gutummaa ummata Oromoo irratti sirna gabirummaa dirirsuuf dinni waraana wali irraa hin citin bara 1889 - 1913 gegesse19." Sirna gabirummaa hundessuu fi tiksuu kessatti yakkoti sanyii duguggaa ummatoota gabiromfaman irratti kallattii fi alkallatin raawatamaa turee fi jiru enyummaa gartulee motummaa impaayera Habashaa ni mullisu. Gartuleen motummaa imaayeratti yeroo wajjin toftaa jijjirachuun mullataniis tarsimoo garaa garoome hin qaban. Gartuleen kun qabenyaa ummata Oromoo saamu fi samsisun sirna gabirummaa hundessu, ijaaruu, fi tiksuu irratti waliifakkaatu; garuu qabenyaa kana dhunfachuu irratti wali lolu. Biyyi umamaan ummati Oromoo irra jiraatu (Oromiyaa) bayyina humna namaa, qabenya umamaa, fi tarsimoo tessuma lafaan dureessa godina gaanfa Afrikaati. Garuu ummati Oromoo qabenyaa gamtaan horatame kanatti walabummaan fayyadamuuf mirgaa fi angoo hin qabu. Sirna gabirummaa bifoota jijjirachuun mullataniif ummati Oromoo gutummaatti jilgenfatee hin beeku. Oli`antummaa angoo waranaan walabummaa irraa fudhatame, ofi harkatti deebifachuuf, ummati Oromoo waraana (qabsoo) haqaa geggessu irra jira. "War was thus only a means of punishing an aggressor, and seizing compensation for damages suffered. From this basic assumption a theory, the ´Just War`, developed during Romans empaire whose moral force survives to this day. A Just War conferred upon the aggressor a right to wage war 20." Qabsoo bilisummaa (QB) ummati Oromoo geggefataa jiru kun qabasoo haqaati.

Baruma wanjoo gabirummaa jalatti kufe irraa egalee ummati Oromoo balaa badisaa motummaa gabironfataan irratti labsame ofi irraa ittisuuf yaale. Fakenyaaf gototi Oromoo dirree Annolee fi Calanqoo irratti meshaa miti ammayyaa ofi harkaa qabanitti fayyadamuun Habashaa fi gantoota meshaale ammayyaa hidhatan fi deggersa alagaan ijaaramuun sirna gabiromfannaa dirirsuuf waraana gegessaa turan ofi irraa ittisuuf wareegama sadarkaa oli´aanaa kanfalaniin dandii qabsoo fincila diddaa gabirummaa (FDG) saaqan. FDG jalqaba jarraa 20ffaa kessa waregama ummata Oromoo kumaatama hedduun egalame kun senaa qabsoo haaqa dhala-namaa kessatti fakkenyummaa bonsaa qabatee jiraata. Bara durii garbooti yeroo goftolii isaanii irratti fincilan goftoliin isaan rebuuf (tumuuf), qaama hirrisuuf, wadaroon hidhachuf, dabarsanii gurgurachuf, yookin ajjesuuf mirga qabu ture; garuu garbooti walabumma sarbaman deefachuuf qabsawuun seraan dhorkaa ture. "On this earth the bondman would retain his bonds, the freeman his freedom. Even slavery, the most extreme instance of social difference, remained unchanged by Christianity. Augustine had argued that nothing could change slavery because it is a punishment for some kind of sin, and the slave consequently could not even claim a natural right to attempt to free himself 20." Garuu heddumina rorrisa sirna gabirummaa irraa qabsoo bilisummaatu 3

dhalata. "Sirni fokkataan safuu Waaqayyoo fi dhala-namummaa ganun ilmaan namootaa daldalaa ture kun qabsoo hadhooftuu baroota dheraaf garbooti geggessaniin digameera. Akkasumas senaa adunyaa kessatti ummatooti wanjoo gabirummaa gita gabiromfatoo jalatti kufan hiree garbootiin wali madaalu qabaatanis qabsoo hadhawaa walitti fufinsaa fi qindoomina qabu murannoon baroota dheeraaf ergii bakkoota hedduti geggessanin booda wanjoo sirna gabirummaa saggoo irraa hikatuun walabummaa harkaa fudhatame ofi harkatti deefataniru 24 ". Fakenyaaf ummati Irteeriyaa waggoota 30 fi ummati Sudaan Kibbaa waggoota 55 qabsoo hadhooftu geggessaniin bilisummaa/birmadummaa argatan.

Ummati gabiroome tokko gartuu isa gabiromfate irratti qabsoo geggesuun hojii salphaa miti. Dinni angoon oli´anee ummata tokko gabiromfatuuf milkaawe qabenyaa ummata gabiromfatee irratti mirga gutu qabaata. Sababii qabenyaa isaatti sirnaan fayyadamu irraa ugguramee jireenya gadoo (iyyummaa) geggessuf ummati sirna gabirummaa alagaa jala jiru tokko hojii QB geggefachuun haalan rakkisa. Ummati akkasii kun qabenyaa ittin haqa isaa deefachuuf falmatu horachuuf carraaqii jajjaboo gochuu qaba. Kanafuu dheerinni fi hadhaawinni amnna qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo (QBO) kan nama ajaayibu ta`uuf hin malu. Ijaaramuun jalqaba hojii qabsoo bilisumaati, sababii ijaaramuu kessaa qabenyaan hojii QB hogganu omishamuuf. Ummati Oromoo ijaaramee hojii QBO geggessu ergii egalee bubbuleera. Ummatooti sirna gabirummaa kessa jiraatan sochiilee geggessan irraa warraaqsa dhalchu. Warraaqsa irraa qabenyaa hojii QB geggessuf fayyadantu argama. Sirnaan qabenyaa horatameetti fayyadamuun mummee hedduu obsaan ergii qaxaamurameen booda adeemsa hojii QB kessatti injifatnnoleen gulamtaa gulamtaan galmeefamu. Qabenyaan horatamu kun jaarmiyaa QB gara angootti ergii jijjireen booda kayyoo QB galmaan geessisa. Kayyoon hojii QB motummaa fedha ummataa irratti hundawe hundessu, ijaaruu, fi tiksuun raawatama. Ummatoota sirna gabirummaa jala jiraatanif ergii hojiin bu`uraa kun raawatameen booda jaarmiyaa hojii partii siyasaa geggessuf haalli mijjata. "A political party is defined as an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office 27." Kanafuu hojii QBO fi hojii partiile siyasaa walifaana ofuun afaan fajjii babalisa.

Mirga ummata Oromoo kabachisuuf jaarmiyoota hojii QBO geggessan heddutu biyyoota hormaa fi Oromiyaa kessatti sochowu. Garuu amma yoonaatti jaarmiyaan adeemsa hojii QBO kessatti raawiilee qabatamaa galmesse jiru jaarmiyaa adda bilisummaa Oromoo (ABO) qofa tawuun ifatti ni mullata: sababii ABO adeemsa FDG kessaa dhalachuun hojii QBO damilee siyasaa, waranaa, fi dipilomasii jalatti walteefame hogganuun injifatnnolee seena qabessa galmessee jiruuf. Barruun kun adeemsa hojii QBO hogganummaa ABO jalatti geggefamee fi geggefamaa jiru xiyyefata. Walabummaan ummata Oromoo harkaa haala akkamiin alagaan fudatamuu isaa gabaabatte ergii dhiyateen booda sirna gabirummaa kessatti to`atamuuf saaxilamu ummata Oromoof qoodi siyaasa ilaalcha gantummaa irratti hundeefame waan fakaatu ni ibsama. Adeemsa FDG kessaa jaarmiyaan argamu fi sochileen ummataa bilchinaan hogganamu irraa warraaqsi dhohun hundeefamu jaarmiyaa ABOf haala mijessu isanii ergiin ibsee booda hojilee QBO bara 1992 duraa fi booda geggefaman xiyyeefachuun hundee rakkoo bulchinsaa jaarmiyaa ABO kessatti babalate xinxala. Barru dhimma kana ilaalu dhiyessuun ogummaa barnoota saayinsii siyasaa gaafatus; dubbiin dhagaye, dubbise, fi argee irraa odefannoo walitti guure ragoomfachuun ofiin ofi lolu jaarmiyaa ABO kessaa walidhibdeen dhalate akkamin siyasaa QBO angoo dhorku isaa ergin xinxaleen booda yaadoota furmataa angoo siyaasa QBO argamsisuu malan dhiyessa.

1. Gabiromfamuu saba Oromoo kessatti qooda gantummaa

Ijaaramuu irraa akka angoon siyasaa burqu ummati Oromoo ergii hubatee baroota (jarrota) dheraa ummatoota lakkofsisan jalqabaa kessaa isa tokko ture. Bara dur-durii irraa egalee godina baha Afrikaa kessa ummati umamaan jirataa ture kun ogummaa Waaqayyoo biraa argateetti fayyadamuun jaarmiyoota gurguddoo ijaaraten angoomun qabenyaa dhunfaa fi gamataa tikfateera. Isaanis jaarmiyoota amantii (aadaa) fi motummaa (siyasaa) turan. "Ummati Oromoo amantii Waaqefannaa 4

maqaan DAANIYAA jedhamee beekamu jalatti ijaaramanii, safuu waaqefannaa Waaqayyoo umaa irratti hundaween ofiin ofi geggessaa, aadaa fi afaan saba Oromoo guddisaa fi tikfataa, baroota dheera kabajaan biyya Oromoo (Oromiyaa) kessa jiraatan. Akkasumas safuu umurii dhalotaa irratti hundawuun jaarmiyaa motummaa maqaan GADAA jedhamee bekamu jalatti ijaaramanii ofiin ofi bulchun senaa, hawaasummaa, fi dinagidee saba Oromoo gutummaati tikfataniru 22."

DAANIYAAn akka ijaarsa filosofii amantitti fi GADAAn ammoo akka ijaarsa filosofii siyasaatti jaarmiyoota saba Oromoof angoo gurmuu kennan turan. Ummatni (Gurmuun) kun ogummaa umamaa irraa qaroomina argateen angoo horachuun qabenyaa gamtaa fi dhunfaa yeroo dheeraaf hawii dinaa irraa tikfateera. "Garuu yeroo dheraa booda hogganummaan DAANIYAA fi GADAA lafataa adeemuun dinaaf qaawa saaqe 8." Hogganoti fi qondaaltoti siyasaa laga-lagaan wali qoqoduu fi ummata Oromoos laga lagaan hirachuun bulchuu egalan. Qabenyaa ummataa sadarkaa gartuutti dhunfachuun guddachaa adeeme. Gartuun qabenyaa guddaa ofi harkaa qabu daran qabenyaan duromee motii mototaatti ofi moggasuuf motoota gartuulee waliin walicigaduu fi loluun hojii ta`uu egale. "Fakkenyaaf shanan mootota laga Gibee mootii motota Macaa ta`uf wali isaani lolaa turaniru. Akkasumas goosota Tulamaa fi Macaa Oromoo yeroo adda addaa walirratti dulaa turaniru 10." Rakkoleen saba Oromoo kessatti dhalatan kun hogganoti amantii fi motummaa akka heerota tumaman safeefachuu hanqatanif qawaa saaqan. "Hogganoti sirnoota waligalteen tolfame safeefachu hanqachuu isanii irraan biyya Oromoo kessatti gantummaan afeerame13." Safuu sirnoomina aadaa motummaa Oromiyaa cabsuu irraa gantummaa siyasaatu dhalate.

Adeemsa kessa safuu waaqefannaa fi safuu umurii kabajuu fi tiksuu hanqachuu irraa dhukubii gantummaa biyya Oromoo kessa sene kun guddatee walihoruun angoo gurmuu ergii daran laaffiseen booda qawwaa balloo banuun saba Oromoo rorroo sirna gabiromfannaa dinaaf saaxile. Dhukubi gantummaa jaarmiyaa Oromoo kessa senuun duratti motootiin Habashaa baroota dheraaf deddebiyuun waraana geggessanis Oromoo gabiromfachuuf hin milkofine ture. Garuu ergii sirnooti DAANIYAA fi GADAA hojii gantotaan borawaniin booda gara dhuma walakkessa jarraa 19ffaa kaasee hanga dhuma jarraa 19ffaatti dinni dula sirnna gabiromfannaa ummata Oromoo irratti geggessen hawii isaa baroota dheeraa fixaan baafachuuf ni milkawe. Waraanni kaabaa egalee hanga kibbaa fi giddu-galessaa irraa egalee hanga dhiyaa fi baha Oromiyaatti geggefamaa ture kun gara waggota digdamaan (20) booda gutummaa Oromiyaa dhunfachuun injifatnnoo dinaan xummurame. Ummati Oromoo weerara dinaa ofi irraa ittisuf FDG geggessun yaalii godhuus hin milkofine ture, sababii angoon wali hin gitiniif. Caalmaan angoo dinaa gargaarsa oli´antummaa meshaa fi ogummaa waranaa alagaa irraa argamee irratti hundeefamu qorannoleen adda addaa mirkanessaniru. Akkasumasa gantummaan siyasaa saba Oromoo kessa senes injifatnnoo gabiromfataa milkomsuu keessatti akkuma oli`antummaa angoo waranaa qooda sadarkaa oli´anaa gumaacheera.

Lammii Oromoo ganuun moraa dinaatti galanii amantummaan dina tajaajiluun hin dangeefamin jiraate. Jirenyi qaanii siyasaa karaa gantoota akka abbaa dulaa Gobanaa Daccee fi isa fakaatan kessaan ulaa Oromiyaa saaqatee oli seene kun idda jabeefataama bubbuleera. Siyasaan ilaalcha gantummaa irratti hundaawe kun meshaa isa jabaa rorroo sirna gabiromfannaa Habashaa dhugomsee fi tikse ta`uu ni odeefama. Garuu hojii badisaa kana maseensuf waanuma xiyyefannaa quphasaan kennameef hin fakkaatu. Kanafuu gantummaan yeroo adda addaa bifoota jijjirachuun motoota gabiromfataa dhufaa-darbaa angoomsu fi tiksu kessatti qooda sadarkaa oli`anaa kennuun guddatee babalate. Gantoota meshaa godhachuun qabenyaa ummata Oromoo samuu fi saamsisu irraa angoo dipilomaasii fi waranaa argameen kan jiraate motummaan Habashaa bifa lamaan mullate. 5

Bifti tokkofaan motummaa Habashaa isa oli´antummaa sanyii Amharaa irratti hundawe ture. Sirna gabiromfannaa motummaa Habashaa bara 1900 – 1991 motoota Amharaan geggefamaa ture angomsuu fi tiksuu kessatti tajaajilli gantooti Oromoo amantummaan sadarkaa ajajaa waranaa, qondaala waranaa, ministeeroota motummaa, bakka bu`oota motumma, bulchaa kutaalee, fi, kkf kennaaf turan galmee senaa kessaatti argama. Fakkenyaaf bara 1974 -1991 yeroo waraanni dhabbataa fi milishaan motummaa Habashaa gara miliyona tokkotti herregamaa ture sana waraanni dhalootaan Oromoo gara 75% olitti tilmaamama ture. Angoon waranaa qabenyaa Oromoo irraa horatame kunis yeroo isaatti motummaa Amharaa tikseera. Motummaa Amharaa fi gartuu Adda Bilisummaa Ummata Tigraayi (ABUT) giddutti karaa sagantaa riphee lolaa dorgomiin siyasaa bara1974 – 1991 geggefame ture motummaan oli`antummaa sanyii Amharaa tiksaa ture gara motummaa oli`antummaa sanyii Tigraayi tiksutti jijjiramuf haala mijjesse. Bara 1991 irraa kaasee bifti motummaa Habashaa inni lammafaan isa oli`antummaa angoomina sanyii Tigraayitti amanu ta`ee mullate. "Sirni gabiromfannaa Habashaa tarsimoo fi toftaa siyasaa foyyyefachuun gargaarsa alagaa dirree riphee lolaa irraa egalee hanga mana motummaatti walirraa hin citniin dirirfame fi tikfame 15 fi 16." Jijjirami angoo siyasaa gartuulee Habashaa lamaan giddutti raawatame kun gantummaa siyasaa nam-tokkee (gartuu) Oromoo gara sadarkaa jaarmiyaa gantummaa siyasaa Oromootti oli guddise.

2. Fincila diddaa gabirummaa ummata Oromoo

Sirni gabiromfannaa motummaa Habashaa qabenyaa Oromiyaa gutummaatti kan ofii isaa godhatuuf sanyii ummata Oromoo kallatti fi alkallattiin lafa irraa duguguu anjeefatee ture. "During the process of colonization by Abysnian between 1870 and 1900, the Oromo population was reduced from ten to five millions 7." Motummaan impaayera Habashaa tarsimoo duguggaa sanyii dhala namaa kana galmaan gessifatuuf toftaalee ittiin fayyaddamaa ture kessaa: qindoomina angoo waranaa, babalina balaa hongee, facayinsa dhukuba daddarbaa, fi mijoomina gurgurtaa dhala-namaa warra gurguddoota turan. Garuu sanyii ummata Oromoo kallatiin lafa irraa haxawuun hin milikoofine. Kanafuu dinni alkallattiin sanyii Oromoo lafa irraa haxawuuf tarsimoo dhokataa dirirfate. Yakka sanyii-duguggaa raawatuuf seera motummaa fayyadamuun mallattolee (Afaan, Aadaa, fi Senaa) enyummaa ummata Oromoo beeksisan hunda isaanii haquun dhabamsisuu yaaleera. Jirenyi saba Oromoo fi biyya Oromiyaa gutummaatti haalameera. Yakki senaa ummata Agawoo irratti raawatame ummata Oromoofis ni karoorfame.

Yakkoota dinaaf ummati Oromo tolee jechuun hin jilgenfanne. Jalqaba jarraa 20ffaa booda qabsoon FDG haaluma facawaan yeroo fi bakkoota adda addaatti gototaan geggefamuu egale. "Fakkenyaaf fincila qotee bultoota kaaba Oromiyaa (godina Walloo), sochii ummata kibba Oromiyaa (godina Baalee), fincila qotee bultoota baha Oromiyaa (godina Harargee), fi kkf turan 23. " Sochii ummata Oromoo kana dhabamsisuuf motummaan Habashaa yeroo adda addaa humna waraana ammayyaa, xiyyaara lolaatti, fayyadamuun konyaalee FDG kessatti geggefamaa ture ibidaan gubuun daayiman, manguddolee, fi dubartoota kumaatama heddu ajjeseera. Warra ibidda xiyyaaraa irraa hafan ammoo balaa hongee fi dhukkuba daddarbaaf saaxiluun dhumaatii garmaaleef kenneera. Akkasuma dinni gidiraa iyyummaa fi doofummaa meshaalee godhachuun ummata Oromoo fi ummatoota cunqurfamoo bara baraan moraa gabirummaa kessatti owaaluuf heddu yaaleera. Garuu qabsoon FDG haala faffacawaan eegalame kun akkuma giti gabiromfataa fi gantooti hawwanitti rukutamee gutummaan hin dhabamnne.

Ficilli ummataa sirna gabirummaa motoota Habashaa ofi irraa buqisuuf geggefamaa ture daran babalachaa adeemun jaarmiyaa ummataa dhalche. Ergii wanjoo sirna gabirummaa dinaa jalatti kufee jalqabee waggoota kurnan jaha booda walakkessa jarraa 20ffaa kessa ummati Oromoo jaarmiyaa 6

qabasoo FDG qindessu ijaarachuf milkaawe. Dhalooti jalqabaa sirnna gabiromfannaa kessatti dhalate jaarmiyaa waldaa macaa fi tulamaa (WMT) bara 1960 kessa hundefate. Qabasoon haala facawaan geggefamaa turees gara jaarmiyaan qindaawutti ceesifame. Sochiin hojii QBO sadarkaa gadii irraa gara sadarkaa 2ffaatti oli guddachuun injifatnnoon xummurame. Hundeefamuun jaarmiyaa ummataa (WMT) kun qindoominaan hogganamuu FDGf dandii saaqe. Qindoomina gurmuun qabasoo FDG geggessuun gati qabessa ta`uu hogganni hubatee kun murannoo fi bilchinaan daandii QBO dhaloota fulduraaf tottolchuu egale.

3. Hundee qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo

Ijaarsi WMT hojii QBO milkomsuuf sochiile bu´raa kutannoon gegessu fi hogganu egale. Hogganni WMT qindoomina gurmuun qabasoo FDG geggessuun hojii murtessaa ta`uu hubatuun bilchinaan daandii QBO dhaloota fulduraaf tottolchuu egale. Meeshaa guddichi sirna gabiromfataa tiksaa jiru dofummaa fi iyyummaa ta`uu hogganni ilaalee arguun sochii misooma Afaan, Adaa, fi Senaa Oromoo bara 1960 kessa egale. Sochii misooma enyummaa Ormoo kessaa qabenya bu´raa hojii QBO fixaan baasuf olifamutu homishame. FDG irraa hojiin QBO dhalachuun isaa moraa hogganoota motummaa Habashaa raasuu jalqabe. Farri nagaa fi guddinaa waan qabee waan gadi dhiisu walaalun hogganoota WMT dorsisuu, yakkoota dharaa irratti dhiyessu, hidhuu, reebuu, fi ajjesuu saganteefate. Tarkaanfiin hoggana hidhuu fi ajeesuu inni jalqabaa Jaalle (J) Hayile Mariyaam Gammadaa (barressaa WMT) irratti raawatame. Gotichis wareegama hadhoftun senaa barresse kessatti dhalootaaf ergaa kana dabarseera: "Ijoollee kiyya; abbaan keenya du´e jettanii hin gaddinaa. Bakka dhugaa dhaabbadhee, dhugaa dubbadheen du`e. Ani abbaan keessan gabra ta`ee, gabra guddisuu irra jedheen isinis rakkisee ofii koofis du´e. Duuti kiyya du`a gootaa ti. Kanaan si`achitti dubbiin Oromoo warra gabiroomfataatti bofa huddu lixxe itti taate. Boofti huddu lixxe, yoo harkisan ni cita, yoo dhiisan ni lixa 9."

Fincili ummataa hogganummaa qabu milkoomina hojii QBOf murtessa ta`uu sababii hubataniif hogganni WMT fi hogganni sochii ummata Balee wali-qunnamtii siyasaa tolfatan. Sochiin ummatotaa qindominaan geggfame kunis sadarkaa biyyoolessaatti guddachuun warraaqasa dhoose. Sochii ummatotaa kessaa warraaqasi dhowuun mootii Habashaa fi ergamtoota isaatti sodaa guddaa naqe. Dinnis sochii bifa harawaa jalqabeen ragaalee dharaa dhiyessuun jaarmiyaa WMT ergii cufeen booda hoggana wldichaa ijoo ta`ee, J. Mammoo Mazamir, ajechaa fannoon dhabamsise. Gotichis waregama hadhoftuun senaa barresse kessatti dhalootaaf ergaa kana dabarseera: "Duutii koo gar-malee miti. Dhiigni koo QBOf madda tahee firii argamsiisa. Warri har´a du`a narratti murteessan, mootichaa fi qondaalota isaa dabalatee, yakka narratti raawwatan kanaaf murtoo adabaa ummatoota Ethiopia biraa akka argatan hin mamu. Ni tura ta`a, garuu ummatni Oromoo mirga sarbame dhiiga ijoollee isaatiin akka deebisee gonfatu shakkii hin qabu 9."

Qabsoon sagantaa (pirojektii) barnotaa (misooma humnna namaa) giddu galeessa godhachuun karaa jaarmiyaa WMT geggefamaa ture injifannolee gurguddoo shan (5) galmessera. Isaanis: 1ffaa Ummata Oromoo golee bahaa – lixaa fi kabaa – kibbaa gara giddu-galessaatti (Finfinnee) seenan walitti fiduun walibarsiseera; 2ffaa QBO badiyaalee Oromiyaa kessatti geggefamaa ture qabsoo magaalota Oromiyaa kessatti geggefamaa turan wajjin walsimachisuuf haala mijjessera; 3ffaa Jaarmiyaa hojii QBO hogganu hundessuuf kanneen gargaaran qophii bu´uraa fi murtessaa raawateera; 4ffaa oromummaa fi ummata Oromoo irraatti yakkoota dinni labsiin geggessaa ture fashalesseera; fi 5ffaa warraaqsa sirna qabenyaa lafaa jijjire qindeessera. Hojiin QBO karaa nagaa geggefamee fi ijifatnno bonsaan raawatame kun senaa QBO kessatti bakka guddaa qabatee jiraata. 7

4. Jaarmiyaa Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo

Adeemsa hojii QBO hogganummaa ABO jalatti geggefamaa jiru baroota lamatti addaan qoduun ergiin ilaalen booda hundee rakko bulchinsa jaarmiyaa ABO gartulee saditti foxoqse xinxaluun furmaatoota hojii irra oluu malan dhiyessa.

4.1. Jaarmiyaa ABO bara 1973 – 1992

Hojiin fincilaa fi misomaa karaa jaarmiyaa ummataa geggefamaa ture waggoota kudhan booda jaarmiyaa hojii QBO hogganu dhalche. "Jalqaba bara 1973 magalaa Finfinnee kessatti walgahii qindaawe irratti miseensota WMT warra harka lafa jalaan qabsaawan fi qabsaawota baha Oromiyaa kessatti sochii geggesantu hirmaate 9." Walgayiin kunis bu´uurefamu ABOf haala mijjesse. "Bara 1973 keessa humna J/ Elemoo Qilxuu hogganeen ABO qabsoo hidhnoo baha Oromiyaa konyaa Carcar kessatti egale. J.Elemoo Qilxuu fi humni inni hogganaa ture konyaa Carca tullu Xirroo kessatti lola guddaa dina irratti ergi geggessanin booda Hagayya bara 1974 wareegaman3." Qabasoon hidhannoo kun bu´uurefamu Waraana Bilisummaa Oromoo (WBO) mirkanesse. Sochii ballaa fi dadhabsiisaa miseensoti ABO godhan keessaa qoodni J. Mul’is A/Gadaa senaa kessati bakka guddaa qabate jiraatu senaa goota Oromiyaa fuula 216 -244 kessatti ibsameera. "Hogganoota QBO magalaa Finfinnee kessatti sochowan ergii qunnamaniin booda, J. Mulliis fi J. Jarraa A. Gadaa, qabsoo hidhannoo ittifufuf murtessuun gara Harargeetti deebiyan. Isaanis qaawee duraan sagaliin WBO, J. Elemoo hogganaa ture, ona Bordoddee kessa dhoksee ture argachuun qawee sadiin Goobalee seenan. Suuta suutaanis ummata dammaqsaa fi ofitti dabalataa, adeeman 11." Hundeefamuu WBOn hojiin QBO sadarkaa 2ffaa irraa gara sadarkaa 3ffaatti ceesifamun isaa siyasaa Oromiyaaf hoggana sadarkaa oli`anaa argamsise.

"Hogganoti hubatoo, qaroo, fi muratoo ta´an Adoolessa 1 bara 1973 magalaa Finfinnee kessatti Birkii Qindesituu waaltaa (BQW) ijaaran. Birkiin kun wixinee sagantaa siyasaa bara 1974 kessa qophessuun irratti mariyatamee haa raggaasifamuu fi sirnni jaarmiyaa yaa dirirfamuuf kora bu`uuressaa ABO qophesse. Waxabajjii 11 bara 1976 kora bu´uressaa ABO dhokasaan magalaa Finfinnee, ganda Qabbanaa, kessatti geggefame irratti bakka bu`oota maadhilee sabboontota Oromoo Finfinnee fi godinoota Oromiyaa, bakka bu`ota jaarmiyaa Dargaggoota Oromoo Warraaqaa, bakka bu´ota sagalii WBO, fi hojjetoota Oromoo kessaa namooti tokko tokko hirmaataniru 11." Kora sabaa 1ffaa irratti wixineen sagantaa siyasaa fi heerri jaarmiyaa ABO hirmaattotaaf dhiyatee, ergii ballinaan mariyatamee raggaasifameen booda hundeefamun ABO sirnoominaan mirkanaawe. "Akkasumas kore hojii QBO sadarkaa olii hogganu utubun J. Dimaa Nogoo (dura ta`aa), J. Mo´ee Abdoo (Itti-aanaa), fi J. Xahaa Abdii (barressaa) filatee dirqama kenneef 11." Hundefamuun jarmiyaa ABO kun hogganummaa hojii QBO sadarkaa isa oli-aanaa mirkanesse.

ABO gaachaanummaan QBO tiksuudhaan geggessuf dirqama ulfataa fudhate. Innis injiftannolee adeemsa QBO kessatti galmeefaman tikfataa dirqama sadarkaa oli´aana baachuun amnna QBO egale. "Teessumi 2ffaa koree gidduu (KG) ABO bara 1977 kessa dhoksaan magalaa Finfinneetti geggefamee. Walgahiin kun miseensota KG shan filuun caasaa Ajaja Siyasaa fi Waraanaa olaanaa (ASWO) tolche. Miseensota shanan hogganummaa caasaa kanaaf filaman: J. Magarsaa Barii (dura ta`aa), J. Gadaa Gammadaa (itti-aanaa dura ta`aa), J. Lencoo Lataa (barressaa), J.Mo`ee Abdoo (gaafatamaa siyasaa fi hawaasummaa), fi J. Dr. Baaroo Tumsaa (itti-gaafatamaa hariroo biyyoota alaa) turan 11." Haaluma kanaan hogganni jaarmiyaa ABO hojii QBO birkilee siyasaa, waraanaa , fi dipilomasii jalatti qindeessuun geggessu egale. Akkuma qindoominni hojiilee QBO jalqabameen murnoota siyasaa Habashaa giddutti jeequmsi mumullataa ture babalachaa adeeme. 8

Murni All Ethiopian Socialist Movement (AESM) jedhamu gartuu waraana motummaa Habashaa (Darguu) irraatti hirkachuun gartuu EPRP (Ethiopian People Revolutionary Party) jedhamu ergii magalaa kessaa haxaween booda hojii QBO harka lafa-jalaan magaalaa kessatti geggessuun bayyisee ulfaate. "Those who remained by sifting the Oromo out, rejoined the Darguu winning praise as `left wing` of AESM; their own people branded Oromo who joined AESM and other nafxanyaa (Habashaa) organizations under the banner of socialist internationalism as `Red Goobanaa`, after the infamous Oromo General (war loard), Ras Goobanaa Daaccee, who helped Minilik, conquer Oromia and southern Ethiopia 9." Dhalooti gantummaa kanneen gartulee siyaasa Habashaa kessatti hirmaataa turan sirnna motummaa Habashaa ilaalcha warraaqasa soshalistummaan haareefame kessatti gaafiin saba Oromoo deebii argata jechuun motummaa Darguutti michomuun hogganootaa fi miseensota ABO duraan ejjennoo isaanii beekan saaxilu hojii godhatan. Dinnis odefannoo dhaloota gantotaa irraa argatetti fayyadamuun tarkanfii sukanessaa fudhachuun sagantaa yeroo gabaabduun qabsoo dirree magalaa ergii dhabamsiseen booda qabsoo dirree baadiyyaas sagantaa duula waraanaa walirraa hin citneen dhabamsisuuf xiyyefate. Garuu jaarmiyaan ABO wareegama qaaliin badiisa jalqabaa dinni irratti labsee ture gotummaan ofi irraa ittisuun amna QBO obsaan tarkaanfachuu egale. Hojiin QBO baadiyaa kessatti babalachaa sababii ademeef hogganoota, miseensota WBO, fi caasaalee lafa ballaa Oromiyaa kessa dirirse.Hoggannis siyoominaa fi bilchinaan jaarmiyaa QBO tiksuu fi sochosuu ittifufe.

Dinoota jajjaboo adeemsa hojii QBO wareeran kokkee qabaa tessuma lafaa balloo kana irra hojii QBO geggessuun angoo jabaa gaafate. WBO reefuu gad ofi dhaabu jalqabu mootummooti lama (Habashaa fi Somalee) haala harawaan bahaa fi kibba baha Oromiyaa gabiromfachuuf waliin dorgee waraanaa bara 1977 kessa jalqaban. "Kayyoo duula gabiromfannaa Oromoo dhokfachuuf jecha motummaan Somalee jaarmiyaa maxxannee, Adda Bilisummaa Somaalee Dhihaa (WSLF) fi Somaalee Abboo, ijaaruun of dura buusee waan sochowuuf jaarmiyaa walabummaan ijaarame, ABO, dhabamsiisuuf carraaqe. Duuloota mootummaa Somaalee fi motummaa Habashaa (Darguu) dura dhaabbachuuf WBO lola isa hin barbaachifne keessa seenuun dirqii ta’ee3." "Dinoota irraa waraana bobbaafame ofirraa ittisaa Guraandhala bara 1977 korri hogganotaa fi qondaaltota ABO godina Bahaa, konyaa Carca ona Bokee, kessatti geggefamun sirnni jaarmiyaa dirree qabsoo hidhannoo tolchame. Baatii Caamsaa bara 1978 kessa battalatti bakka tokkoti wareegamuun J. Dr. Baroo Tumsaa fi J. Badhoo Dachaasaa hamilee qabsaa`ota bayyee busu irra darbee wali shakkiin babal`atuuf sababaa ta`e. Walshakkiin kunis baayachuun waraanni bakka lamatti sababii addaan qodameef walitti deebisuun shakkisiisaa ta `e. Kanafuu J. Jarraa fi J. Mulis A. Gadaa waliin ta`uun jaarmiyaa ABO foxoqfachuun jaarmiyaa Adda Isilaama Bilisummaa Oromoo (AIBO) hundeefachuun hayyuu fi itti-aanaa hayyu durummaan hogganuu egalan11." Hoggani ABO dinoota alaan bobbaafaman kokkee qabaa fi rakkoo kessaan jaarmiyaa foxoqse furuu yalaa amna QBO daran hadoofte ittifufe.

Foxoqinsi dhalate kun miseensotaa fi qondaaltota WBO facaasee ture. "Haa ta`u malee J. Gadaa Gammadaa (itti-aanaan dura ta`aa ASWO ABO), J. Xiqii Hinsarmuu (Abboomaa Mitikuu), J. Nadhii Gammadaa, J. Galasaa Dilboo (Yohaannis Bantii), J. Gammachiis Dhaabaa (Zakaariyaas Mulataa), J. Guddataa (Sanbatoo Luboo) fi qondaaltota biro dabalachuun ona Malkaa-Balloo bakka Darbii Sheek Muhaammad jedhamutti J. Magarsaa Barii (dura ta`aa ASWO ABO) fi qondaaltoota birootti dabalaman. Hogganoti fi qondaaltoti kun Caamsaa bara 1980 kessa bakka kanatti walgayii addaa geggessaniin WBO facawee ture bifa haraween deebisanii ijaaran. Walgayiin kun bobbaa WBO godinoota Bahaa fi Kibba Bahaatti waaltessuun dirqama itti-gaafatamummaa godina Kibba Bahaa J. Galasaa Dilbootti 9

kennate 11." Jaarmiyaan ABO qisaasa foxoqinsaa irraa dandamachuun hojii QBO dirree lolaa haala foyyawen hogganu ittifufe. Jalqaba bara 1980 kessa dirreen WBO godina Dhihaa (Lixaa) saaqamuun dangaa tessuma lafaa hojiin QBO kessatti geggefamu daran baballise. "Waajjira ABO magalaa Moqaadishoo kessatti banuuf Malkaa Balloo irraa ka`anii adeemsa guyyoota shan caalu erga ademanii booda magaalaa Fiiqii fi Sagaag gidduu bakka Shinyiillee jedhamu akkuma gahaniin farreen QBO nannoo sanatti sochowaniin marfaman. Bakka sanitti dura ta`aa fi itti-aanaan ASWO ABO, miseensoti KG (J. Abbomaa Mitikkuu fi J. Iggazuu Bantii), fi qondaaltoti WBO torba dinaan Caamsaa 15 bara 1980 rashannaman 11." Hogganis saffisaan bakka hirrate gutuun amna QBO hedduu hadhofte ittuma fufe.

Yoo rakkinooti kessaa fi alaan qunnamaa turan bifoota adda addaa ufachuun mullatanis; hojiin QBO karaa jaarmiyaa ABO hogganamaa ture injifatnnoolee mimidhagoo galmessera . Hogganis qiyamaa kessaa fi alaan walixaxoo qunnamaa turan bilchinaan to´ataa hojii bara sana kessa saganteefame haala quphasaan raawatera. Jechuun, hojiin QBO balaa rakkinoota qunnamaa turanin gutummaatti hin takaalamne sababii rakkinoota tartibaa fi obsaan furataa hojiilee murtessoo raawachuun aadaa qabsawotaa tureef. "Fakkenyaaf kora sabaa 2ffaa bara 1989 Gobaleetti geggefame irratti, miseensoni ABO koraan dura sababa adda addaan miseensummaa gadi-lakkisan haa deebiyaniif, yaamicha taasifamee kabajuun bara 1991 kessa J. Mullis A. Gadaa miseensummaa isaa kan duraa (Miseensa KG) qabachaa tureen gara moraa ABOtti deebiyuun hanga guyyaa wareegameetti gotummaan QBO tikseera 11." Sirnni motummaa Habashaa ilaalcha soshalistummaa adunyaa hordofaa ture waraana sagantaa riphee lolaan waggoota 17 booda, Caamsaa bara 1991 yeroo diigame jaarmiyaan ABO motummaa cee`umsaa Itophiyaa hundessu fi geggessu kessatti hirmaachuun isaa murtee bilchina hogganummaa irraa madde ture. Qajeelummaan murtichaa deggersa ummataa daarii hin qabaatin argateen madaalama. Ummati Oromoo baadiyaa fi magaalota irraa: Galamsoo hanga Manditti, Fichee hanga Gobbaatti, Goree hanga Kamiseetti, Begii hanga Nagaletti, fi Jijjigaa hanga Wanbaraatti sagalee tokkomeen gaachana (ABO) isaaf deggersa mulliseera. Ummati jarraa tokko booda yeroo jalqabaaf boruun BIRMADUMMAA baqauuf arginaan gammachuun ni machaawe. Garuu gammachuun baatilee gabaabduun booda shirraa goli-bustotaan boorawe. "The ablity of TPLF regime to deliver democratic system of governance in Ethiopia was under question from the very beginning because it excluded systematically independent political organization, the OLF, from participating in election process of June 1992 16." Walabummaan silaa karaa nagaa fi dimokirasii deffatamuuf tilmaamame hin milkawin hafe.

4.2. Jaarmiyaa ABO bara 1992 – 2011

„Waliigaltee yeroo motummaa cee´umsaa irratti hundawuun ABUTwaliin walitti dhufanii akkaataa waliin hojjetan irratti marihataa turan; garuu irra caalaa osoo waliif hin galle addaan deemaa turan. ABUT (Habasha) garuu yeroo hedduu waliigaltee diiguudhaan deeggertoota ABO hidhuun waldhabbii dhalchu irratti bobbawe. J. Gammachiis Dhaabaa (miseensa KG ABO) sirna waliigalame irratti hundaawee yeroo waligayii geggessan hunda maaliif walii-galteen hin kabajamin hafe jechuun gochaalee isaanii ragaa qabatamaa waliin ajajoota ABUTf ifatti himuun adda durummaan dura dhaabbachaa ture. Ajajooti ABUT dandeeytii fi gootummaa J. Gammachiis hubatuudhaan mala itti ajjeesan karoorfataa turan. Akka kanaan ajajooti ABUT bara 1992 kessa magaalaa Nagaleetti walgayii fakkeessanii waajjiratti J. Gammachiis yaaman. Miseensoti WBO haala ajajoota ABUT kana shakkuun akka hin hirmaanne J. Gammachis gorsanilee, lakkii humaa hin hafu erga na yaaman niin dhaqa jechuun shugguxii isaa hidhatee dhaqe. Yeroo waajjira ABUT gahutti waardiyaa isaa inni WBO keessaa fudhatee dhaqe alatti hambisanii isa qofaan seeni jedhaniin. J. Gammachiis yeroo mana kessa seenu hidhannoo kee lafa kaayi jedhaniin. Duraaniis hidhannoo kiyya osoon hin hiikanneen waliin haasawaa turree; har`a maaliifiin hikkadha jechuun dubbii itti deebise. Duraanuu ajajooti ABUT sababaa itti barbaadanii ajjeessuuf waan saganteefataniif manuma walgayii kessatti itti-dhukaasuun shirraan ajjeesan11." Walidhibdeen kun adeemsa hojii QBO gara qaxaamura waliinxaxameeti ceesise. 10

Moraa siyaasa QBO hogganummaa ABOn geggefamuu fi moraa haarefama siyasaa gabiromfataa hogganummaa ABUTn saganteefame giddutti waldhibdeen gara dhuma 1980 kessa mullachu jalqabe wareegama J. Gammacisiin ibsame. Addefamuun walidhibdee syaasa QBO fi siyaasa gabiromfannaa gartuu Habashaa ilaalcha warraaqasa dimokiraatummaan haareefame kun adeemsa QBO sadarkaa 3ffaa irraa gara sadarkaa 4ffaatti ceesise. Jeequmsi fi afaan faajjiin walidhibdee kana irraa maddan yeroo adda addaa jeequmasa walirraa hin citne moraa QBO kessatti babalisuun tasgabii fi siyoomina hojii dhabamsisuu egalan. Dinni bifa harawaan Oromiyaa weerare kun hogganaa fi WBO dhabamsisu kessaan jaarmiyaa ABO ajjesu irratti xiyyefate. "The Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) had to leave its new camps, in most cases braking encirclements, however the surrounding enemy, TPLF (ABUT), army who occupied vantage points hard hit them. The Abisinians had never kept their words in the past and no reason to trust that they would keep it in the present. The enemy overpowered the camps at Qellem, Jimmaa, and Horro. Many gallant sons and daughters lost their lives. Tens of thousands of fighters and civilians imprisoned in malaria infested Dhidheessa Abysinian military camp. Many force commanders, leading caders, and members of the commando force lost their lives. Many were taken captives to Huursoo, Blatteen, Ziway and other camps from East, South, and centeral Oromia 9."

Motummaan Habashaa dhalmaan Amhara irraa gara waraTigrayitti darbe kun sirna gabiromfannaa harawe galmaan gessifatuuf tumsoota miltoolee (gargaartota waraanaa), alagaa (maalaqa), fi gantoota (odeefanno) irratti hundawuun dula walirraa hin citneen QBO dhabamsisuuf sochowe. Garuu dulli dinaa golee maraan nu irratti bobbawe kun, WBO fi ABO (gachanoota QBO), dhabamsisuuf hin milkofinne. "Yeroo mootummaa cehumsaa kessaa bara 1992 ABOn baafame angoo walin qindeeffachuun WBO dhabamsisuuf ABUT fi Adda Bailisummaa Ummata Erteriyaa (ABUE) lola guddaa banan. Fakenyaaf isaanis qindoominaan loltuu bergedii tokkon (kuma kudhanin) WBO irratti Ebla 12 bara 1994 kutaa Balee ona Dalloo Mannaa, nannoo Laga Dayyuu, bishaan Haxiballaa jedhamu irratti banan. Guyyoota sadiif lola hadhawaa geggefame keessatti, J. Gutamaa Hawaas (mseensa KG ABO) gotummaan lolee lolchisuun, Ebla 14 nannoo Barraaq bakka Dhukkee jedhamutti dinaan marfame. Harka koo diinatti hin kennu jechuun boonbii ofitti dhosun jaallan afiran waliin turan waliin wareegaman. Haala walifakatun, J. Buruysoo Boruu (mseensa KG ABO), gaafa 10/05/1995 kutaa Harargee (ona Bokee) kessatti wareegame. Gama dinaatiin waraanni lola irratti ajjefame fi madeefame heddu ture 11." Gotummaan dina loluun ittuma fufuun wareegama qaalii gototi hedduun gumaachaniin QBO ni tikfame. Hogganoota, qondaalota, fi miseensota ABO irraa egalee… barattota Oromiyaa fi deggertoota ABO abalatee… maqaa gototaa asi irratti tarressuuf waraqaa fula heddu barbaachiisa. "In subsquent years many patriots among them top leaders laid down their lives for a cause they had wowed to defend. The struggle was revived after great sacrifice by a nucleus survived in the south and East and it is being waged to this day 9." WBO fi ABO duloota dinaa waliraa hin citin irraa dandamatee hojii QBO ittifufun isaa nama ajaayiba.

ABO gotummaan lolee lolisisuun balaa badisaa qindoominaan QBO irratti labsame fashalessuun Ebla 12 – 18 bara 1998 kora hatattamaa magalaa Moqaadishooti geggefateen murtilee haressoo murtessee ture. Murtilee murtaawan kessaa warri jajjaboon kanneen akka: dargagoota misensummaa KGtti filate; sagantaa siyasaa fi heera jaarmiyaa foyyesse; maqaalee hogganummaa KG, biroo siyasaa, fi barressaa irraa gara Gumii Sabaa (GS), Shanee Gumii (ShG), fi hayyu-dureeti jijjire, koree gorsitoota (barchuma yubaa) hundesse, fi koree qorannoo dogongora dabiran xinxalu filate. Murtileen kora hatattamaa kun yoo bilchinaa fi hubannaan gara hojiitti hikamuuf milkaawanif, adeemsa QBO gara sadarkaa angoon jabinaatti tarkaanfachiisuun angoomina sadarkaa oli´aanaa argamsisu jedhamee tilmaamame. Garuu hojiin silaa raawatamu malan hedduun dudubati hafuudhaan yeroo kamuu calaa moraan ABO jequmsa 11

kessaa kanneen walirraa hin citneen tasgabii waakkachuu egale. "The rumors of internal division were extensively disseminated and some from unexpected corners started to meddle in Oromo affairs, with rumors of war mongering and peace loving groups in the OLF that started to be echoed from international community to achieve the purpose of weakening Oromo leadership and struggle 9."

Motumoti ABUT fi ABUE bara 1998 – 2000 waraana walirratti banuun isaani dula badisaa qindoominaan QBO irratti geggefamaa ture salphisuun hojii QBOf haala mijjeseera. Garuu haala mijjateef kanatti ABO gutummaan fayyadamuun hojii QBO fuula-dura tarkanfachisuf hin milkofine, sababii kessi moraa QBO tasgabbawu hanqateef. Waldhibdeen moraa QBO kessatti dhalate babalataa ademe. Sababii kanaan jaarmiyaan ABO bara 2002 gartuu lamaaf hiramuun hoggana ABO ShG fi hoggana qaama ce´umsaa ABO (QC-ABO) jechun moggaafame. "Groups in OLF, which were so far invisible, were now forced to surface: group of current chairman (J. Dawud Ibsaa) and group of former secretary general (J. Galasaa Dilboo) 9." Jarsoliin Oromoo yaali mangudummaa waggoota lamaan gartulee lamanuu walitti araarsuf hin milkoofine. Rakkolee foxoqinsa dhalchan ilaa fi ilaameen hikatuuf yoo hin milkaawinis jaarmiyaan ABO adeemsa hojii QBO foyyesuuf Muddee 21 – 27 bara 2004 kora 3ffaa Erteriyaa kessati geggefate. "…Understanding the local, regional, and global changes that have taken place since the last congress nescessitate crafting appropriate and fitting strategies and tactics as well as qualitatively increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of our organization to meet the challenges of the time in order to realize our people`s inalinable right to self-ditermination recoganized by the international law …17." Hoggani ABO rakkoo kessaan danqamus siyaasa adunyaa walxaxaa kessatti jaarmiyaa ABO tottolchuudhaan sharri dinni xaxaa ture irraa adeemsa QBO tiksuun hojii damilee siyasaa, qunnamtii alagaa, fi waraanaa fuldura tarkanfachisuf yaalu isaa murtee kora 3ffaa irraa ni hubatama.

Dorgommii siyaasa gabiromfannaa motummaa ABUT fi jaarmiyoota siyaasa Amaharaa gidduti Ebla bara 2005 geggefame irraa jeequmsi dhalatee ture duula qindoominaan QBO irratti geggefamaa ture salphisuun hojii QBO damilee siyasaa fi qunnamtii alagaa jalatti gegefamaniif haala mijjesera. Jaarmiyaan ABO haala mijjateef kanatti fayyadamuun QBO fuula-dura tarkanfachisuf jaarmiyaalee siyaasa motummaa ABUT morman waliin Tumasa Bilisummaa fi Dimokirasii (TBD) Ebla 21 bara 2006 hundesse. "The Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), Sidama Liberation Front (SLF), Ethiopian People’s Patriotic Party (EPPF), and Coalition for Unity and Democracy Party (CUDP) convinced that working together to materialize the higher interests of the people and the establishment of a genuinely democratic transition where divergent visions could freely and peacefully compete for the verdict of the people is in the best interest of the parties and in consequence they decided to set up the Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (AFD) to guarantee freedom and democracy in Ethiopia and the region4." Akkasumas waamicha jaarmiyaa ABO kabajuun ajajoti fi loltuun motummaa ABUT kanneen dhibboota hedduun tilmaamaman diina gananii gara WBOtti makamuun isaani qindoomina hojii damee waraanaaf daran haala mijjessera. "…senior commander of the enemy force ... and tens of other army commanders including colonels together with hundreds of soldiers safely arrived on 9th of August 2006 in Eritrea ... along with their full logistics, communication equipment and military hardware….5" Hojii QBOf milkessuf qileensa mijjatan kanneenitti gutummaan fayyadamuf hin milkoofinne, sababii kessi moraa ABO jeequmasa ergamtoota dinaan xurawee jiruuf.

Sirna-dhabilummaan jaarmiyaa ABO kessati babalataa adeemuun isaa marsaa 3ffaaf Hagayya 30 bara 2008 hogganna ABO gartulee lamatti gargar foxoqse. "The entire executive committee of the OLF has been relieved of its duties and replaced with a provisional executive council today to take the organization out of the current paralysis and stagnation due to an irreconcilable disagreement inside the executive committee 6." Foxoqinsa 2ffaa booda bara gabaabduu kessatti gartuun maqaa isaa ABO jijiirame yookin koree yeroo ABO (KY-ABO) jechuun mogaafate fi J. Jeneraal Kamaal Galchuu hogganu 12

dhalate. "Executive Committee (EC) of the OLF conducted an emergency meeting to deliberate on the current internal anarchic and anti organizational activities that a clique has clandestinely been conducting destructive activities within the organization for a while including agitations targeting the legitimate leadership of the organization in contradiction to the latest resolutions of the National Council that met last March, 2008 and the effort of the leadership to handle this matter wisely and patiently has been disregarded.18 " Rakkoon kessaa kun sadarkaa jaarmiyaa ABO dadhabsisu irra darbee gara sadrkaa dhabamsisutti waan dhiyate fakkaata. Kessaan digamuun bara heddumataa adeeme dirqama jaarmiyaa hogganuu fudhachuun hojii halaan ulfataa ta`uun ni beekama. Garuu gartuu hundinu maqaa fi fajjii tokkoon meshaalee sab-qunnamti dirirfachuun ani ABO fi ani hayyu-dure jechuun ofi beeksisuun daran bulluqaa adeeme. Jaarmiyaa ABO dhunfachuuf oloola ofirratti ofuu irraa enyufaa fayyadamree? Dirqama hayyu-durumaa fudhachuu irraa dantaan addaa argamu ni jiraaree? Jaarmiyaan ABO adeemsa kessa jaarmiyaa paartii siyasaa dantaa kursii (barcuma) irraa argamuuf dorgomuu taasifameree? Yeroo hojii siyasaa kessatti hirmaatan sadarkaalee dirqama hogganumaa irratti waliin dorgomuun amala jaarmiyaa paartii syasaati malee amala jaarmiyaa hojii QB geggeesu miti. Hogganumma sadrkaa olii dhunfachuuf jecha hoggantooti gartulee (partilee) siyasaa waliin dorgomuun waanuma jiruti, sababii hogganummaa irraan (kessaan) dantaan jirenya saaddoo / miidhagaa tiksu argatamuf. Garuu hojiin QB waregama lubbuu hogganotaa, qondaaltotaa, misensotaa, fi deggertotaa irratti hundeefame geggefamaa jiratuun ifaan ni mullata. Kanafuu osoo dirqama hojii QBO hin xummuratin sadarkaa hogganummaa dhunfatuuf waliin dorgomuun kun hikkaan isaa namaaf hin galu.

4.3. Angoo siyasaa argachuuf foxoqinsa jaarmiyaa furachuu

Jaarmiyan ABO hojii QBO hogganummaa siyasaa, waranaa, fi dipilomaasiin geggessu ergii egalee gara waggota kurnaan afuritti dhiyaateera. Cichoominaan rakkinoota heddu kessa darbuun adeemsa hojii QBO bilchinaan hogganameen injifatnnoleen seena qabessi bara 1992 fuula dura galmaawaniru. Garuu jaarmiyaan ABO gara angoo siyaasaatti hin guddatin jiraachun ni yaaddessa. Angoo siyaasa kessaa madduutti fayyadamuun qabenyaan omiishamu angoomina hojii waraanaa fi dipilomaasii anjjessa. Jaarmiyaa QBO geggessaa jiru mititi, motummaan angoo biyyoota hogganuu ofi harka galfateefilee milkomina hojii waranaa fi daldala dipilomaasiidhaf angoo siyasaa gonfachuun bayyisee barbaachisa. Jaarmiyaan ilaalcha siyaasaa qabatamaa irratti hundeefamee jiru kun galii tilmaame rukutuuf haala mijjate maratti fayyadamuun angoo quphasaa horachuuf carraaquun murtessaa ta`uu isaa hogganoti jaarmiyaa siyaasaa qajellootti ni beektu. Foxoqinsi jaarmiyaa ABO kessatti yeroo gara yerootti guddataa ademuun isaa qindoomina hogganummaa dadhabsisu irraan siyoomina adeemsa hojii QBO danqun ifatti beekama. Rakkoo dhalate hikuuf sochiin jalqabameera. Garuu foxoqinsi jaarmiyaa ABO hundee irraa jalqabee sababiin isaa sirnaan beekamu qaba, rakko walifakaatu maseensuuf. Kanafuu haala akkamiin rakkoon kun dhalatuu isaa ergii xinxalameen booda furmaatoota soquu fi ogummaa hubannaan goligameen furmaatoota gara hojiitti hikuun ni barbaachisa. Hanga rakkoon kessa jaarmiyaa ABO jiru hin furamnetti adeemsa hojii QBO kessaa angoo siyasaa isa walabummaa ummata Oromoo gutummaatti mirkanessuf dandeetii gutuu qabatu argachuun ni mamsiisa. Kanafuu rakkoo bubbulee fi babalataa ademe xinxaluun furmaatoota qajeeloo barbaaddachun nuyiif gammachuu garuu dinaaf rifaatuu.

Adeemsa hojii kessaa rakkoleen dhalatun waanuma ta´uu malaati, sbabii hojjechuu irraa rakkolee maddan sirnaan furatuun guddinaaf dandii mijeessuf. Burqaa (maddi) rakkolee yoo sirnaan bekamaniif furmaatota akekuun ni salphaata; garuu hojii ulfataan furmaatota soqamanii akeekaman sirnaan gara hojiitti hikuudha. Kanafuu yeroo furmaati sagantaa fi karooran gara hojiitti hiikamuu jalqabu rakkolee akka-malee dhalatan xiqqeesuun babalina rakkolee daangessuf dandeetii qaromee argachuun bayyee barbaachisa. Rakkoon adeemsa hojii QBO kessaa dhalatee jiru essumaa burquun isaa ergii sirnaan qoratamee beekamen booda furmaatooti akeekaman yoo bilchinaan gara hojiitti hikamuuf milkaawan guddinni angoo ni mirkanaawa. "Moraa ABO kessati yeroo adda addaa rakkoleen foxoqinsa dhalchan hundeen isaanii 1ffaa garaagarummaa ilaalcha waaqefannaa (amantii), 2ffaa naamusa jaarmiyaa cabsuu (sirna-dhabilummaa), fi 3ffaa gartummaa ta`uu malan 14." Akkuma ummatoota adunyaa kana 13

irra jiraatan kanneen biroo ummati Oromoo latiinsa sanyii, tessuma lafaa, ilaalcha waaqefannaa, hawaasummaa, fi kkf maraan gosoota heddutti adda qodamuun dangaa heera umamaan ala miti. Garaa-garummaatti sirnaan fayyadamuun badiisa fidu hin qabu, garuu garaa-garummaatti sirna malee fayyadamuun badiisa deebii hin qabne dhalchuu mala. Fakkenyaaf hogganoti siyaasa biyya Somaalee dhimma hojii siyaasaf garaag-arummaa gosaa fi tessuma lafaatti sirna malee fayyadamuun isaanii dhimmoota bulchiinsa ummata Somaalee kessa hunduu (jaarmiyaa fi motummaa adda addaa) dangaa-malee kessa senuun waan barbaadan dalagatuuf ulaalee cufaa hin qabaatin babba`neef.

Bara 1978 kessa wareegamuu hogganota ABO irraa waldhibdeen dhalatee ture qabasawoota giddutti walishakkii babalisaa ademuun jaarmiyaa ABO kessatti foxoqinsa jalqabaa ifa godhe. Gartuun yerosi ABO irraa foxoqe kun jaarmiyaaa AIBO jedhamu hundessuun qabsoo hidhannoo, siyasaa, fi qunnamtii alagaa egale. Maqaa AIBO jedhamu irraa yeroo dubbifamu, sababiin waldhibdee inni jalqabaa, hojiin QBO ilaalcha siyasaa waaqefannaa (amantii) irratti hundeefameen haa hogganamu fi hin hogganamu fakkaachun mullate. Hogganoti AIBO ilaalcha islamummaan QBO geggessuun bilisummaa Oromiyaa ni saffisiisa jechuun tilmaaman. Siyaasa ilaalcha islamummaa hundeefatetti fayyadamuun qabenyaan horatamaa ture hojii QBO fula-dura tarkaanfachisuuf hin milkoofine, sababii qabenyaan horatame irra hedduun hojii QBO dadhabsisuuti badeef. Walidhibdee moraa QBO kessatti dhalate furuuf jecha ilaalcha amantii islamaan waliqoqodanii qabsawuun furmaata dogongoraa ta`uu isaa hogganoti jaarmiyaa AIBO waggoota digdama (20) booda hubatan. "Extraordinary congress of islamic front for libration of Oromia (IFLO) has adopted and issued a new and completely different constitution, structure of organization, name of the front, and its flag: therefore from this 30th day of the month of September, the year 2005, the name of the front shall be known as front for the independance democratic Oromia (FIDO) and finally the congress re-elected unanimously Jaarraa Abbaa Gadaa as the president of FIDO 12." Adeemsaa fi guddina hojii QBO yeroo dheraan booda ilaalchi siyasaa QBO islamummaa irratti hundeefamee ture kunoo ilaalcha siyasaa Oromummaa hundeefateen gutummaan mo`atame. Injifatnnoon kun amna QBO hadhooftuu fi dhertuu kessatti guggubamu fi qaqamu irraa argame.

Jalqaba foxoqinsa duraa irraa egalee waggota 24 booda waldhibdeen hogganota ABO gidduti dhalate jaarmiyaa ABO marsaa 2ffaaf bara 2002 kessa gartuu lamati addaan qode. Gartuun ABO foxoqifate waggota murasaaf maqaa QC-ABO jedhamu moggaafachuun ergi sochoween booda ani ABO isa jalqabaati jechuun hojii siyasaa, hidhannoo, fi qunnamtii alagaa geggessu egale. Hogganni gartuu ABO kun foxoqinsa jaarmiya dhalateef sababiin kennatan:" kayyoon ABO inni jalqabaa waan dandii QBO irraa maqeef nuyi kayyoo jalqabaa tiksuuf ijaaramne jechuun himatu". Garuu gartuun ShGABO (Asmara group) impaayera Itophiyaa dimookiratessuuf gara biyyaatti galuuf qabsoo hidhannoo lagatee jechuun garaa-garummaa ilaalcha siyasaa sabaa-himaatti labsu. Kayyoon QBO bilisummaa ummata Oromoo karaa sirna mirga hiree murtefannaa mirkanessuu irraa hin faalefamne. Kayyoon kun heera jaarmiyaan tikfamaa ture fi jira. "Angoon sagantaa siyasaa murtessu fi heera tumu (jijjiruu yookin foyyessu) seraan KS ABOf kenname 1 fi 2." Casaaleen KS jalatti argaman fakkenyaaf GS, koree to`annoo hojii irra olmaa heeraa, ShG, waajjira hayyu-duree, fi kkf kayyoo ABO foyyessu yookin jijjiruuf angoo seraan tumame hin qaban. Rakkolee walxaxoo adeemsa QBO qunnamanif kayyoo ABO foyyessuu yookin jijjiruun furmaata tokko yoo jedhameef: qoratamee caasaa angoon kennamefif ergii dhiyateen booda heera jaarmiyaa irratti hundawuun raawatama malee hogganni ABO dhimma kana sababeffachuun gartuu dhalchuudhaan walirrati bokkisuun dubbii dhugaa hin fakkaatu. Kanafuu waldhibdeen hogganoota ABO gidduuti dhalate namusa jaarmiyaa cabsuu (sirna-dhabilummaa) irraa maddun (burqun) ni hubatama.

Ittifufnsi waldhibdee hogganota ABO bifa jijjirachuun marsaa 3ffaaf bara 2008 kessa jaarmiya ABO gartuu lamatti addaan qode. Gartuun hoggana ABO inni 3ffaan maqaa KY- ABO jedhu moggaasun sochilee hojii siyasaa, hidhannoo, fi qunnamtii alagaa jijjiru isaa labsiin beeksise. Foxoqinsa dhalateef sababiin himame inni guddaan hogganni ShGABO hojii QBO waan dadhabsiseef nuyi, KY-ABO, tarsimoo fi toftaalee adeemsa hojii QBO gara fooyyeefamaatti jijjiruuf karoorfaman hojii irra olchuuf qabsoofinna jechuun sabaa-himaaf ibsan. "Despite its military and political strength, OLF had been unable to wage a consistent and forceful campaign against the regime of Tigrean People Liberation 14

Front; therefore the new leadership will focus on intensifying the armed struggle against the Meles regime6." Garuu jijjirammi (foyya`insi) toftaa, tarsimoo, fi hogganoota ABO yoo adeemsa hojii QBOf haala mijjessuu kessaan angoomina jaarmiyaa argamsisu ta`eef: silaa jijjirami yaadamu qoratamee ergii caasaalee dhimmi ilaaluf dhiyatee raggaasifameen booda sirnaan hojii irra ola malee hogganoota gartuutti hiree garaa-garummaa babalisuudhaan jaarmiyaa ABO hin foxqosu ture. Kanafuu waldhibdeen hogganoota ABO inni 3ffaan kunis akkuma foxoqinsa isa 2ffaa namusa jaarmiyaa kabajuu hanqina irraa dhalatun isaa ni beekama.

Hogganooti ABO baroota 2002 fi 2008 kessa jaarmiyaa ABO ergii foxoqfataniin booda deggerssa gartummaa siyasaa baayyifachuuf jecha kallattii fi alkalattiin kutaa kessaa dhalatanitti fayyadamuun ifaan mullateera. Angoo heerri jaarmiyaa ABO kennu fayyadamuun murteen namusaa bara 2002 kessa hogganoota ABO sadarkaa oli´anoo sadii (J. Galasaa Diliboo, J. Dhugasaa Bakakkoo, fi J. Abiyyuu Galataa) irratti dabarfamee ture qondaalotaa fi miseensota ABO kanneen kutaa kessaa dhalatan irraa fagessun siyaasa QBO ilaalu hin dandenye biratti shakkii dhalcheera. Haaluma walifakaatuun bara 2008 kessa murteen namusaa hogganoota ABO sadarkaa oli´anoo sadii (J. Lencoo Baatii, J. jenerala Kamaal Gaalchu, fi J. Huseen Hasan) irratti jigees akkuma siyaasaan ilaalcha gartummaa irratti hirkate moraa ABO kessatti sirnaa-ala geggefamu argisiseera. Kanafuu qondaaloti fi miseensoti ABO hangi tokko firummaa iddoo dhalootaa (Wallagummaa fi Arisummaa) hedachuun gartulee hogganoota ABO faana hiriraniru. Hogganoti heera jaarmiyaa diguun karaa harka lafa jalaan moraa ABO kessatti siyaasa gartummaa gosaa geggeefachuun kun sababii isa 3ffaa jaarmiya ABO gartuleetti addaan cacabsse ta`uun isaa hin shakkamu. "Narrow-minded groups within the OLF cannot see beyond a limited sphere…Every thing possible was also done to cover-up individual as well as group errors…Nationalism as an ideology for the struggle was at its infancy and not yet properly defined 9." Oromummaan hundee jirenya sabummaa fi enyummaa ummata Oromoo ta`uu isaa hogganooti fi qondaaloti ABO ni lallabu. Garuu siyasaan QBO ilaalcha oromummaa giddugalessa godhatuun heera jaarmiyaan dangefamee geggefamu moraa ABO kessattilee hin babalatin jira.

Hogganoti ABO rakkolee adeemsa hojii QBO kessatti isaan qunname sirnaan hikatuu hanqachuun isaanii farreen QBO moraa ABO kessatti shirraa raawatanuuf haala mijessera. Dinni karaa dirree lolaa hin milkawiin hafe kunoo ulaa karaa foxoqinsa jarmiyaa saaqameef kessaan kallatti fi alkallattiin moraa ABO kessa senuun adeemsa hojii QBO dadhabsisuuf carraa guddaa argateera. Hogganis sochii dinaa moraa ABO kessatti geggefamu to`anno jala olchuu hin dandenye. Kanumafuu bara 2002 fi 2008 hogganoti ABO akkuma qabenya dhunfaatti jaarmiyaa garaa-gara foxoqfachuun isanii misensotaa fi deggertoota ABO marsaa lamaaf bakkota saditti adda cacabse: isaanis 1ffaa hordoftoota ABO, 2ffaa hordoftoota QC-ABO yookin KY-ABO, fi 3ffaan warra afaan faajawun hojii QBO lagatan ta`uun isaanii ni beekama. Farreen QBO irratti duluun duddubatti hafee walirratti duluun hojii isa guddaa taasifame. Silaa motummaa ABUT (dina waloo) dadhabsisuudhaaf qabenyaa fi angoon hojii irra oluu malan gara ittin ofiraati duulun ofi dadhabsisutti cee´sifaman (jijjiraman). "Ethiopia has taken more than 100 armies of the OLF into custody after they surrendered and handed over a cache of arms and the group included Lucho Burbura who has been one of the group's top military commanders and its head of foreign relations18." Adeemsa QBO kessatti rakkolee qunnamaa turan osoo waligaltee bilchateen furu fi qajeelummaan (eggannoon) gara hojitti hikatuuf cichame ta`eef: silaa dangaa murtilee dogongoraa moraa dinaa gabbisuf tolan akkasifaa kana ni xiqessa ture. Kanafuu heraa fi sera waligalteen tumame safeefachun hojii QBO geggessu hanqachun kunoo qaanii akkasi fi kanneen biroo dhalcha.

Jirenyi fi guddinni jaarmiyaa tokkoo dhimmoota saganteefate fi karoorfate fixaan baasuu kessatti heera waligalteen tumame safeefachuun hojii raawachu/raawachisu isaan madaalama. Sirnadhabilummaan yeroo gara yerootti jaarmiyaa ABO kessatti babalifamaa ademuun isaa sadarkaa enyummaa ABO faallessuti aggamatee jiratuun ifumaan ni mullata. Kessumaa bara 1992 booda hogganoti heera faallessuun ABO tokkicha gartulee saditti adda qoqoddachuun akkuma daldala dhunfaatti hojii QBO geggessu jalqaban. Heera jaarmiyaa diguun hojii QBO hogganuun kun ergamoota dinaaf, gantotaaf, 15

haala mijjessera. Sababii hojii QBO qindoominaan hogganuuf hin milkaawinif fedhiin dinaa kallattii fi alkallattiin moraa ABO kessatti bekaas ta`e hin beekamin raawatamaa fi rawachisamaa jirachuun ni mullata. Rakkoon kun fulduree hojii QBO danqaree jiratu isaa miseensoti/deggertoti, ummati Oromoo, fi dinooti kenya qajeelchanii ni beeku. Kanafuu: 1ffaa heerri ABO dandii irraa jallate gara dandiitti nuuf haa deebifamu muggutama; 2ffaa hogganummaa tokkomeen yookin qindoomeen hojiin QBO geggefamee arguuf hawii ummata Oromooti; fi 3ffaa foxoqinsa jaarmiyaa ABO irraa dantaa dinooti QBO argatan dangeefamu qaba. Gaafilee dhiyaatan sadan gutummaatti yookin irra caalaa deebisuun dansa.

Gaffilee armaan olitti xuqaman sadanuu xiyyefannaa kessa galchuun rakkoo dhalate yeroon furachuuf ofi qophessuun hogganoota ABO, QC – ABO, fi KY– ABO irraa egama. Sababii foxooqinsa kanaan sirna-malee qabenyaan barbaadaweera fi ajjechaan raawatmeera. "Miseensi kamu foxoqa dhalche yookin tokkummaa miseensotaa, jaarmaa, fi saba Oromo diigee yookiin diguuf yaalee yoo argamef sadarkaa ol`aanaatti dhihaatee miseensummaan isaa irraa mulqama 1." Garuu murtee namusaa kana gutummaan gara hojiitti hikuun hin mijofine: sababii adeemsa hojii QBO kessatti qaama (mana-murtee fi polisii) angoo walaboomeen heera jaarmiyaa tiksu ijaruun hin mijatneef, akkasumas haala ABO tokkichi hayyu-duroota sadiin hogganamu kessatti seera namusaa hojii irra olchuun salphaa miti. Kanafuu walidhibdee hogganota ABO giddutti dhalatee fi babalataa adeeme kana adaa saba Oromoo irratti hundawuun sirna mangudummaan hikuun fulduree hojii QBOf fayiidaa guddaa qabaata. Dhimma kana fixaan baasuf gola aadaa Oromoo kessaa furmaata argamsisuf hundesitoti jaarmiyaa ABO fi jarsooliin Oromoo cichoominaan hojii araaraa fi nagaa isaan jalqaban ballinaan deggerame geggefamu qaba. "The OLF is happy to announce that after a series of talks under the mediation of its founders and senior members have agreed to reconcile and unify the organization by signing a major agreement on September 27, 2010 28." Rakkoo dhalateef furmaatoti ta`uu malan: 1ffaa jaarmiyaa ABO gartulee sadiif hiramee jiru gara hogganummaa tokkometti deebisuu; 2ffaa yookin gartuleen ABO sadanuu / lamanuu waligalteen tumasa hogganoota jaarmiyota ABO (Alliance of OLF leaderships) ijaarun hojii QBO qindoominaan geggessu; 3ffaa yookin gartuun ABO inni tokko hojiin angoomee argamuu.

Yoo furmaati inni 1ffaan yookin inni 2ffaan filatameef isa 3ffaa irra milkoomina hojii argamsisuuf ni salphata sababii bara 1992 booda jaarmiyolee hedduun maqaa kan biraa yookin maqaa ABO hirachuun hojii QBO geggessuf yaalanis injifatnnoo qabatamaa isaan galmessan hin jiru. Garuu bara 1992 duraa fi booda jaarmiyaalee hundeefaman walitti fiduun bara 2000 kessa waligalteen jaarmiyaa Tokkummaa Humnoota Bilisummaa Oromoo (THBO/ULFO) hundeessudhaan hojii QBO qindoominan geggessuf yaalameera. THBO akkuma akeekameetti furmaata hawwame fiduu hanqate, sababii tarsimoo siyaasa QB irratti hin hundaawinif. Kanafuu tumasa ijaruun fuula dura, maaliif tumsi kanaan dura ijaaraman hin milkofineen?, sirnaan qoratamee ergii beekameen booda muxannoo irraa argatame ilaalcha kessa galfatun tumsa foyyawe ijaaru yaalutu barbaachisa. Gartuleen adda addaa jaarmiyaa ABO kessaa sababii gara garaan foxoqanii ofi ijaaranis yookin paartileen siyasaa garaa-garaa komee ABO irratti qaban ibsachuun ijaaramanis angoon siyasaa silaa hawwamu sun hin argamsifamne. Fakkenyaaf waggoota kudha sagilan (19) dabiran (1992 – 2011) kessatti jaarmiyaa siyaasa QBO hojii QBO hogganuun bilisummaa Oromoo dhugoomse hin agarre. Akkasumas partii siyasaa karaa sirna nagaa fi demokirasii kessaan QBO hogganeen Itophiyaa dimookiratesse sana kessaan mirga ummata Oromoo kabachise hin agarre. Siyaasi QBO bara cee`umsaa kun siyaasa bara motoota laga Gibee shananiin walifakkaata. Motooti bara durii sababii odeefannoo quphasaa ofi harkaa hin qabneef fagootti hin ilaale. Hogganni bara ammaa odeefannoo ofi harkatti baateera, garuu maaliif fagessee ilaalu hin dandenyere? 16

5. Xummura

Ummati Oromoo amna QBO irra jira, sababii walabummaa dabareen motummooti warra Habashaa harkaa fudhatan gutummaatti ofi harkatti hin deefatinif. Ummati bara wanjoo sirna gabirummaa jalatti kufee irraa jalqabee haala facawaan FDG gara waggota 60 geggesse irraa jaarmiyaa misomaa (WMT) hojii FDG qindeessu hundeefate. Gotooti Oromiyaa J. Hayile Mariyaam Gammadaa, J. Mammoo Mazamir , J. Elemoo Qilxuu, J. Dr. Baroo Tumasaa, fi kkf qindoominaan hojii FDG hogganu irraa sochii ummatotaatu dhalate. Sochiin ummatootaa babalataa adeemuu kessaa warraaqasi dhofamuun isaa hundeefamu jaarmiyaa siyaasa QBOf haala mijjesse. Jaarmiyaan hojii QBO hogganu fi geggessu injifattnoolee karaa FDG galmaawan irraatti hundeefamun isaa ni beekama. ABO adeemsa kessa qindoomina hojii FDG ummata Oromoo irraa argame.

ABO jechuun QBO yookin QBO jechuun ABO. Innis QBO ta`un isaa injifatnnolee adeemsa hojii QBO kessatti galmesseen mirkanaawa. Jaarmiyaan ABO rakkinoota furachaa amna QBO hogganaa ture kessaan injifatnnolee ummati Oromoo ittinbonaa jiraatu galmeessera: isaanis 1ffaa hojii QBO damilee Siyasaa, Waranaa, fi Dipilomasii jalatti qindessuun geggessera; 2ffaa adeemsa QBO sadarkaa adunyaatti beeksiseera; 3ffaa Hojiile bu´uraa enyummaa ummata Oromoo mullisan (qubee afaan Oromoo, qorannoo enyummaa Oromoo, barrulee / kitaaboota Oromoo ibsan maxansisu, fi kkf) raawateera; 4ffaa quphsuma biyya-Oromoo (Oromia) tessuma biyyoota lafaa (global map) irratti galmeesisera, fi 5ffaa afaan Oromoo golaa baasuun qoqa barnotaa fi hojii taasisera. Raawii seena-qabessi bara 1973 – 1992 hogganummaa jaarmiyaa ABOn milkaawe kun hundee siyasaa impaayera Habasha jeequun adeemsa hojii QBO bara ce´umsaa (1992 – 20??) kessa ergii dabarseen booda galii isa xummuraa rukuta jedheen amana. Garuu bara 1992 irraa egalee rakkoo kessaa fi alaan walxaxee jiru furatuun angoo siyaasaa argachuun hedduu barbaachisa. Hojii bu`uraa adeemsa QBO kessatti raawatame irratti hundawuudhaan angoon siyaasaa yoo argameef ummati Oromoo WALABUMMA harkaa butame gutummaatti ofi harkatti deefatuuf dandeetti quphsaa uffata.

Rakkoleen alaa fi kessaan walxaxan bara 1992 booda babalataa sababii adeemanif jaarmiyaan ABO angoo quphasaa horachuuf hin milkofine. Bara injifatnnoo bu`uraa caalaa yeroon ce`umsaa dheratu mala sababii bifoota adda addaan dantaa alagooti godina gaanfa Afrikaa irraa karaa motummoota Habashaa argatan alikallattiin adeemsa hojii QBO yeroo hin murtaawinif danquuf. Qabsoo haqa ilmaan namaaf deggerssi kennamuu qabu dantaa ofii kabachifachu fi tikfatuun booda ta`uu isaa hin dagatinaa. Siyasaan ilaalcha gantummaa irratti hundeefame dhukkuba hamaa kallattiin adeemsa hojii QBO danqe. Adeemsa jijjirama angoo motummaa Amaharaa fi Tigree giddutti geggefameen booda siyasaan gantummaa gara jaarmiyaan hogganamutti oli guddatuun rakkoo kessaa walxaxaa gochuun hojii QBO takaaleera. Hojii dharaa fi hojii haqaa garaa-gar saccawuun rakkisaa ta`eera. Enyufaa dina tajaajilaa jiratuu yookin enyufaa lammii tajaajilaa jiratuu isaani qulqulessuun sababii rakkisaa ta`eef firoota horachuun salphaa hin taane. Gantummaan bara ammaa meshaa guddicha dinni kessaa fi alaan ittin afaan faajii omishu sababii ta`eef hojii QBO geggessuf deggerssa barbaachisu horachuun salphaa miti. Akkasumas hogganni siyasaa saba bicuu (miliyoona 6 gadi) haala akkamiin saba guddaa (miliyoona 75 oli) walidukaa ofee bulchuf dandayetii argatu isaa alagaaf ibsuun salphaa miti. Qaanii fokkataa akkasii kessaa ba`uuf jaarmiyoota QB geggessaa jiran wajjin tumsa tarsimoo siyasaa ijaarachuuf ofi qophessun murtee ogummaan olii miti. Bilisummaa Oromoo dhugoomsuf toftaa gara hojiitti hikuun ni salphata, yoo adeemsa kessa hojii QBO irraa karaa tumsaa angoon siyasaa argameef. 17

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