Napata: Egypt Ruled by the Forefathers of Arabic-speaking Sudanese and Oromos (not Amharas). Part V

Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis
In an earlier article titled "Egypt, Ethiopia - Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist Fallacy of Ethiopianism, and Nubia" (, I expanded on the colonially masterminded project of fake identity projection on both, the Arabic speaking populations of Central Sudan, and the Semitic Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians.

Pan-Arabism was the fake doctrine fabricated by the colonial Orientalist academia in order to project the fake Arab identity onto the former.

Ethiopianism was the fake doctrine fabricated by the colonial Orientalist academia in order to project the fake Ethiopian identity onto the latter.

Then, in two subsequent articles titled "The Common Origins of Egypt, and Ethiopia ? Sudan. Oromos, Arabic Speaking Sudanese, Nubians. I" ( and "Hamitic-Kushitic Origins of Egypt and Ethiopia / Sudan. Oromos, Arabic Speaking Sudanese, Nubians II" (, I expanded on early periods of Prehistory and History (A-Group, C-Group, Kerma kingdom) of Ancient Kush ? Ethiopia (Sudan).

I explored the earliest phases of Kushitic - Ethiopian civilization, the interaction with Egypt, and the mistaken use of the term ´Nubian´ for the monuments built and the historical states formed in Ancient Kush / Ethiopia, i.e. today´s Northern Sudan.

In the 3rd part of the series, entitled "Egyptian Rule over Kush-Ethiopia, and Ahmose Nefertari, Foremother of Oromos and Sudanese. Part III" (, I focused on the Anti-Egyptian alliance between the Kushitic / Ethiopian kingdom of Kerma and the Asiatic invaders of Egypt, the notorious Hyksos, on the liberation of Egypt from the Hyksos rulers, and on the cooperation of the Egyptian throne with the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse opposing the Kerma rulers in view of the eradication of the latter. The interaction between the Hamitic ? Kushitic Egyptians with the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse was mainly a spiritual ? religious ? ideological search for authenticity, and for them all, the "good" had to prevail on both, Kemet (Egypt) and Kas (Kush / Ethiopia).

The Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse was present in the pharaonic court and the high priestess Ahmose Nefertari, a Kushite / Ethiopian noble lady, was the Queen Mother of the Pharaoh Amenhotep I. Backed by this cooperation, Thutmose I put an end to the "evil" kingdom of Kerma, and the entire Kas (Kush / Ethiopia) became part of Egypt ? for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile, south of today´s Egyptian ? Sudanese border, up to the vicinity of Atbarah.

In the 4th part of the series, entitled "Egypt, Akhenaten, Aton Monotheism: Origins of Oromos´ and Sidamas´ Kushitic / Ethiopian Religions" (, I focused on the rise and the fall of the Egyptian New Kingdom, on the permanent clash of the monotheistic and polytheistic priesthoods of Amun of Thebes, and on the religious ? spiritual revolution of Akhenaten of Egypt, who preached the monotheistic system (Atonism ? the system evolving around Aton, the Only God) that pre-modeled the Kushitic / Ethiopian monotheism and the later monotheistic Kushitic religions. During this long period, the Egyptian occupation of Kush / Ethiopia was unchallenged because the interaction was great and Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse and priests proved to be inherent part of the Egyptian court, administration and temples.

Atonism caused however a rift in the Egyptian society, and the fall of the monotheistic regime of Akhenaten ushered the country into centuries of internal strife and decadence. After 1075 BCE, Egypt was divided into two countries, the Lower Egypt and the Upper Egypt, whereby the former was an ally of the Libyan princes and closely involved into the Mediterranean world, and the latter formed a bond with the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse and was centered between Thebes (Niwt, in Ancient Egyptian, lit. "the City" / the Ancient Greek and Latin names originate from the name Djeba of the Theban royal palatial district) and Napata (ca. 1350 km south of Thebes, in today´s Karima in North Sudan) and radiated throughout the Sahara.

Kush / Ethiopia remained united with Upper Egypt for several centuries but the prevailing forces were priestly, and diffused the polytheist version of the Theban Amun doctrine; the mutual interest for cooperation prevailed in order to ensure a successful opposition to the Delta kings of Lower Egypt who with the support of Libyans repeatedly attempted to reunite Egypt under a monotheistic Heliopolitan doctrine.

Gradually the power shifted from Thebes to Napata that was not viewed anymore as only the ancestral center of Pre-dynastic Egypt and as the eternal abode of Amun, but also as a wealthy commercial center and a rising economic powerhouse.

Progressively, as the power shifted from Thebes to Napata, a dynasty rose there to protect not only Kush / Ethiopia but also Thebes, against Heliopolis, the Delta Kings of Lower Egypt, and their Libyan allies.

From Horihor to Kashta

Following the death of Ramesses XI, Egypt entered into a chaotic situation of multi-division that lasted more than 300 years. The high priests of Amun of Thebes had risen to power during the century-long period of the successors of Ramesses III, and their polytheistic ideology could not be accepted by other priesthoods in Egypt.

The secession of the North (Lower Egypt) created the phenomenon of several parallel dynasties; the reason for this is that the pharaohs of Lower Egypt, although backed by the priesthoods of Heliopolis and Hermupolis and strengthened by the interfering Libyan princes, were still very weak to drive the Theban priests out. On the other hand, the latter, known in Ancient Egyptian as Whem Mesut (lit. repetition of births; e.g. Renaissance), although drawing from the wealth of Kush / Ethiopia and machinating against the North, were not strong enough to recapture the whole of Egypt.

The high priests of Thebes were not considered as a proper dynasty, despite of the existing kin relationship among them, and despite the fact that all of them resumed the pharaonic position, and had their names inscribed in cartouches according to the royal customs of Egypt.

Through Horihor´s grandson, Psunennes I, there was kin relationship also between the high priests of Thebes and some of the Lower Egyptian pharaohs. Even this was not able to make the "Two Lands" (Tawy in Ancient Egyptian, a second name for Egypt) reunite, due to the risen priestly control (either monotheistic Heliopolitan and Hermupolitan in Lower Egypt or polytheistic Theban in Upper Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia). Lower Egypt was then divided to more states and administrations, and this schematic map gives an approximate idea of the situation:

Divisions existed also among the family of the high priests of Thebes.

Horihor (1080 ? 1074 BCE) was succeeded by Piankhi (1074 ? 1070), Pinedjem I (1070 ? 1032), Masaharta (1054 ? 1045), Djed Khonsu ef Ankh (1045), Menkheperre (1045 ? 992), Smendes II (992 ? 990), Pinedjem II (990 ? 969), Psunennes III (969 ? 945 / who is not to be identified with Psunennes II of the 21st dynasty as some Egyptologists suggested), Iuput (944 ? 934), Sheshonq (924 ? 894), Iuwlot (894 ? 884), Smendes III (884 ? 874), Horsiese I (874 ? 860), Hem Netjer Tepi (860 ? 855), Nimlot III (855 ? 845), Osorkon (840- 835 / unrelated with Osorkon III of the 23rd dynasty), Horsiese II (835 ? 816) and Takelot (800 ? 775).

For more details:

During this period, the schismatic 21st dynasty (1070 ? 945 BCE) ruled Lower Egypt from Tanis (Delta), and Smendes was succeeded by Amenemnisu, Psunennes I, Amenemope, Osokhor (Osorkon the Elder), Siamun, and Psunennes II. For more details:

In the subsequent period, the 22nd dynasty (945 ? 715 BCE) ruled Lower Egypt from either Tanis, Bubastis or Herakleopolis, and the Berberic descent governor of Buabastis, who overtook the rule after the death of Psunennes II, Sheshonq I (945 -924, contemporary of Solomon of Israel) was succeeded by Nimlot I, Osorkon I, Sheshonq II, Takelot I, Osorkon II, Horsiese I, Takelot II, Sheshonq III, Pami, Sheshonq V and Osorkon IV (730 ? 715).

During this period, the 23rd dynasty (818 ? 715 BCE) ruled, in parallel with the 22nd dynasty, over parts of Lower Egypt from either Tanis, Hermupolis, Herakleopolis or Leontopolis, and Pedibastet (son of Takelot II and brother of Sheshonq III) was succeeded by Iuput I, Sheshonq IV, Osorkon III, Takelot III, Amunrud, Iuput II, Sheshonq VI, Payeftjawembastet, Nimlot III, and Djehutyemhat (ca. 728 ? 715).

During the same period, a short-lived dynasty of also Berberic (Libyan) descent ruled part of Lower Egypt from Sais; this is the so-called 24th dynasty of Egypt (727 ? 715), which consists of three pharaohs, namely Tefnakht, famous for his great military exploits, and his unworthy successors Bakenranef and Padinemti.

The Beginning of the Napatan dynasty of Kush / Ethiopia

The Egyptian ? Kushitic osmosis that took place during three centuries of rule exercised by the polytheistic high priests of Amun of Thebes over Upper Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia brought soon results. Benefiting from the cooperation between the Egyptians and the Kushites / Ethiopians, and viewing the expansion to the North (Lower Egypt) as a great challenge and opportunity, a local ruler of Napata, named Alara, formed there a strong basis of military and political power ? in coordination with the Theban priesthood of Amun. Although ruling from Napata, he controlled most of Upper Egypt´s territory, as the high priests of Thebes ceded their power.

Alara was not a king either in Kush / Ethiopia or Upper Egypt; he was an administrative ? military ruler and a founder of dynasty, greatly revered by his successors. He certainly belonged to the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse, and he was not a Nubian (Medjay), as the falsification effort of the wikipedia and their anonymous authors seems to suggest. (

The aforementioned article seems to be absolutely self-contradictory as the title reads "Alara of Nubia", whereas the first sentence starts as follows: "Alara was a King of Kush", which is an oxymoron because the two terms do not alternate. In the Antiquity, Nubians (Medjay) lived in both Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia, but their land of origin was a small spot in the Eastern desert, and its name was never used within a context of Political Geography. Contrarily to the Nubians, the Kushites lived in a vast territory stretching over parts of today´s Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan, which was named Kas (Kush / Ethiopia). Kush is relevant of Political Geography because Kush was an independent state many times.

The systematization of the wikipedia falsehood is also attested in the article Kingdom of Kush ( whereby it is falsely claimed that Kush was also "referred to as Nubia", whereas "in Ancient Greek and Greco-Roman records" Kush was referred to only as "Ethiopia", a name that is prohibited to be used by the late Semitic invaders of a tiny East African territory around Axum, because they are Abyssinians (Habashat) of Yemenite origin, and totally unrelated to Kushitic Ethiopia.
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It seems that Alara´s effort was mainly undertaken at the military and administrative levels, and the efficient administration of the territory between Thebes and the fifth cataract of the Nile granted a big revenue to Alara´s successors.

Due to the fact that Alara was a Kushite (Ethiopian), the dynasty founded by him was labeled "Ethiopian" by the 3rd century BCE Ancient Egyptian Historian Manetho. It is very clear that no Amhara and no Tigray Abyssinian, ignorant, parasitic and falsifying pseudo-professor has the right to claim any historical, cultural, linguistic or ethnic link to that dynasty.

Manetho wrote an Egyptian History in Ancient Greek (under title "Aigyptiaka") to widen the knowledge about Ancient Egypt among Macedonians, Greeks and other foreigners living in Egypt in the first century of the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty. (

Most of the Egyptian Hieroglyphic references to Alara date back to posterior periods; the famous stele of Queen Tabiry (wife of Piye, Alara´s second successor) makes clear that she was the daughter of Alara and Kasaqa, his wife. The use of cartouche in the writing of Alara´s name is merely honorific and does not signify that he had ever been given any real pharaonic insignia. Alara was also referred to in epigraphic evidence dating from Taharqa´s reign, so almost 100 years later. Alara was indeed the brother of Taharqa´s grandmother.

The English Egyptologist (comically described in the wikipedia falsifications as "Nubian archeologist" ? a term that does not exist, contrarily to the valid terms "Sudanese" or "Kushitic" or "Meroitic" Archaeology) Tim Kendall hypothesized that a royal name half-saved on a stele from the temple of Amun at Kawa (nearby Dunqulah) as "Ary" refers to Alara; this is however wrong and the Hungarian Egyptologist and scholar Lazslo Torok proved that the stele belongs to a much later period.

Alara was probably buried in the tomb Ku 9 in El Kurru, the earliest Napatan necropolis, which is located at a distance of ca. 10 km from Napata (Karima) and the Holy Mountain Jebel Barkal. This represents however a certain neologism because tombs had to be hewn (and pyramids erected) only on the Nile´s left bank which was identified with the West (perceived as the Gate to the Nether World); however, in the vicinity of Napata (and in the entire region from Abu Hamed to Debba), the Nile stream takes a reverse direction from the northeast to the southwest! According to the Ancient Hamitic and Kushitic beliefs, in the aforementioned area, the Nile´s western bank is not the "real" Western bank (i.e. the left) but the fictional Western bank, and consequently, the real western bank is the Nile´s eastern bank (in the area stretching from today´s Abu Hamed to Debba, a distance of almost 300 km).

As a matter of fact, later Kushite Qore (kings) rectified the "mistake" and the late Napatan necropolis is located at today´s Nuri (at a distance from Marawi) on the Nile´s eastern bank, which was the real "western" bank (being the left bank) for the Ancient Egyptians and Kushites / Ethiopians.

Kendall greatly contributes to the confusion of terms and the subsequent usurpation of the Ancient Kushitic / Ethiopian History from its real and rightful heirs, namely the Arabic-speaking Sudanese and the Kushitic Oromos and Sidamas, by stating that Alara "was interred in the traditional Nubian manner". Alara was buried in typical Kushitic / Ethiopian manner. The imitation of pharaonic insignia in Alara´s burial bears witness to expectations rather than realities of his lifetime.

Kashta (750 ? 730) ruled as Pharaoh from Napata and Thebes, and claimed to be the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, although his rule was not extended north of Thebes. He is however the earliest ancestor of today´s Arabic-speaking Sudanese and Kushitic Oromos and Sidamas to have ruled over part of Egypt as "En Sw Bit" (as was pronounced the title "pharaoh" in Ancient Egyptian). Kashta was the brother of Alara, and according to the traditional Kushitic law the first royal brother was the heir apparent.

The early Napatan rulers attributed great importance to their interconnection and interaction with the polytheistic Amun Theban priesthood. Consequently, Kashta (his name meaning lit. "the Kushite") consecrated his daughter Amenardis (Imen-iirdisi) to the Theban clergy, and there, the Kushite priestess rose to the highly venerable position of Divine (female) Adorer of Amun, and Divine Wife of Amun ( Several statues of the Kushite priestess have been preserved down to our days, depicting a most honored ancestor to today´s Oromo, Sidama, and Arabic-speaking Sudanese mothers and sisters.

This was an act of combined, spiritual and political, importance; the strengthening of the Napatan ? Theban bond involved the arrival of an early Kushitic / Ethiopian garrison at Thebes that seemed then to have become for a while a world-city whereby kings of Lower Egypt and Napatan rulers coexisted in times of brief visits, and were equally honored when absent. Kashta´s stele from the Elephantine island (Aswan) temple of Khnum testifies to the Kuhsitic / Ethiopian respect for the Egyptian South and the spiritual subsystems of the Theban polytheism.

Kashta´s tomb is located in the early Napatan necropolis El Kurru (no 8). His successor, Piye (or Pianki, 752 ? 721 BCE) consolidated the Napatan Kushitic / Ethiopian control of Upper Egypt, and clashed with Tefnakht for total control over Egypt. On his reign, I will focus in a forthcoming article.

Further readings:

The pyramids at el-Kurru

The site at el-Kurru contains the tombs of Kashta and his son Piye (Piankhi), five earlier generations, together with Piye's successors Shabaka, Shabatko and Tanutamun, and 14 pyramids of the queens. Taharqa (c.690-664 BC) built his pyramid on the new site at Nuri, but his successor Tanutamun (c.664-656 BC) returned to the site of el-Kurru.

Between 1918 and 1919, American Egyptologist George Reisner conducted excavations at el-Kurru, where at that time only one pyramid remained standing. Reisner discovered low mounds of rubble, under which were the tombs of Piye and his successors of the 25th Dynasty, Shebaka, Shebitku and Tantamani. Their tombs had once been covered by pyramids, but by the early 20th century, they had been entirely removed. Reisner also discovered the tombs of 24 horses and 2 dogs nearby.

At Piye's tomb, steps led down into a small part-subterranean rock-cut burial chamber where his body had been placed on a bed atop of a stone bench in the middle of the chamber. Fragments of canopic jars were discovered, along with some shabti figures, suggesting that the body had been embalmed in a typical ancient Egyptian style. There had been a chapel built above the stairway to the burial chamber, but like the pyramid, it too had been completely destroyed. Piye's tomb marked the first of over two hundred pyramids that would be built at three sites in Nubia.

Stela of Piankhy (Piye)


Kushite (Napatan) 747 BC

Sudan National Museum, Khartoum No. 1851

The scene shows on the right a standing figure of King Piankhy (Piye) (747-716 BC), identified in the cartouche above him, wearing the characteristic Kushite cap-crown with double uraei, facing left and offering a pectoral and a necklace to a triad of deities (a form of the traditional Theban triad), an enthroned Amen-Ra followed by a standing Mut and Khons, all facing right.

Divine sanction of Piankhy's ascent to the throne is confirmed in the god's address 'to his son, whom he loves', inscribed in the columns of inscription above him: 'I said concerning you (even when you were still) in the womb of your mother, that you would be ruler of Egypt . . . I caused you to receive the Great Crown . . . It is I who decreed (the kingship) for you . . . No other may decree (who shall be) king'. The king's acknowledgement is recorded in the columns behind him, where he asserts his pre-eminence over all other rulers: Amun of Napata has caused me to be ruler of all foreign countries. To whomsoever I say "you are chief", he shall be chief. To whomsoever I say "You are not king", he shall not be king. Amun in Thebes has caused me to be ruler of Egypt. To whomsoever I say "Make your appearance (as king)", he shall make his appearance. To whomsoever I say "Do not make appearance", he shall not make his appearance . . . Gods make a king, men make a king, (But) it is Amun who has made me'.

The main text of the stela is located directly beneath the offering scene. Arranged in horizontal lines reading right to left and downwards, it records the king's full titulary and epithets, and once continued with a historical narrative, of which only fragments of the beginning now survive. One of these fragments crucially bears the remnants of what may be a year date, possibly to be read as '(regnal-year) 3', in which case the stela is Piankhy's earliest known monument.

Piankhy's titulary was clearly inspired by that of one of his great imperial 'predecessors'. King Thutmose III of the 18th Dynasty, as recorded on the letter's famous victory stela from Jebel Barkal. One especially significant difference, however, is the form of the king's so-called Horus-name. In the case of Thutmose III, the name is 'Strong Bull, Appearing (ascending to the throne) in Thebes'; in the case of Piankhy, it is 'Strong Bull, Appearing in Napata', a calculated change announcing 'a momentous reversal of history . . . the place of Thebes, where the Egyptian conqueror of Kush had been crowned, was now taken by Napata, where the Kushite ruler of Egypt is crowned' .

He employed master Egyptian sculptors to depict his conquest of Lower Egypt just as pharaohs of an earlier age might have depicted a victory over Asiatics, Libyans, Hittites, Sea Peoples, or even Kushites. The cities falling to his armies are not in Palestine or Syria but in Egypt. The kings bowing at his feet are Egyptian, as are the treasures seized from them. Yet strangely, throughout Piankhy presents himself as the reincarnation of the great pharaohs and the devoted servant of Amun and all the Egyptian gods.


Sudan: Ancient Treasures, Derek A. Welsby and Julie R. Anderson, British Museum Press, p. 163 (2004)

Sudan Kingdom of the Nile, Dietrich Wildung (1997)

Also: (in Spanish) (with excellent maps)