Gumii Paarlaamaa Oromoo (GPO)
Oromo Parliamentarians Council (OPC)
Page 2 home
Evidence, Menelik Genocide against Oromo and other nations.
Frank Chalk and
Kurt Jonassohn (1990: 24) wrote that ‘ The sources suggest that more than 90 percent of the Maji or Dizi, about 80 percent of the Gimira, between third thirds
and three quarter of the Kaficho and about half of the Oromo
population had lost their lives as the consequence of the conquest
and colonisation by Menelik. The small
Secondly, to spread terror among real and potential enemies, the Abyssinian forces committed acts of mass murder and mutilation against the different peoples they conquered. Here, unlike in the north, mutilation included even women. In that respect the best-known case was the mass mutilation of the Arsi Oromo during the wars of conquest fought from 1882 to 1886. What was remarkable here is that mutilation did not stop with Abyssinian victory at the battle of Azule in 1886 that cost the lives over 12,000 Oromo fighters (Haji, 1995; Zewde, 1991: 63). Weeks after the Arsi were defeated at battle of Azule, the commander of the conquering forces, Ras Darge Sahle Selassie, ordered thousands of Oromos to gather at a place called Anole. Thousands came obeying the order and were killed or mutilated – the men of their hands and the women of their breasts (Haji, 1995: 15-16).
It was reported that in 1912, about 40,000 of the Gimira were rounded up and taken to the north, and that half of them died on the way while the rest were sold as slaves and scattered within and outside the Ethiopian empire (Pankhurst, 1968: 107).
While, in the case of the Arsi Oromo, both resistance and surrender to the conquering forces led to mass murder and mutilation, the initial passive incorporation of the Gimira and Maji/Dizi expedited their enslavement and mass deportation from their land (Hodson, 1927: 02). Writing about the Maji/Dizi, the German anthropologist Eike Haberland (1984: 47) notes that before the arrival of the Amhara troops in the 1890s and the subsequent forced incorporation of the Dizi into the Ethiopian empire, the Dizi probably numbered between 50,000 and 100,000.
Judicial System and Procedure
The exercise of judicial functions rests partly in the emperor and commanders of regions and districts, and partly in the people itself.
Each leader has the right to judge and punish his subordinates, and each individual person has the same right over his servants.
In the forty-fourth chapter, it talks about imperial power. The time of appearance of this book coincides with the apogee of imperial power.
Crimes and punishments are as follows:
1) State crime — capital punishment (in very rare cases); cutting off the right hand and left leg; most often, putting inchains and life imprisonment.
2) Insulting majesty — cutting out the tongue.
3) Murder — the murderer is given to the family of the person killed, who kill him in the same manner that he killed.
4) Robbery — capital punishment (in this way, Emperor Menelik eliminated robbery, which formerly was very widespread).
5) Insulting a personality by action or word 104 — monetary fine.
6) Fraud — monetary fine.
7) Accidental manslaughter — monetary fine from 50 to 1,000 talers.
8) Non-performance of instruction of the government — monetary fine and flogging.
9) Criminal breach of trust — removal from job, putting into chains, monetary fine, confiscation of property. The imposition of punishments by separate individuals goes in the following steps:
1) Each private individual in relationship to servants and minor commanders have the right to throw someone into chains for an indeterminate time and to impose 25 lashes by birch rods (kurbach).
2) The commander of a marketplace can impose monetary fines and flogging with whip (jiraf) up to 8 lashes.
3) The commander of an area — cutting off hands, up to 50 lashes (jiraf), and monetary fine.
4) Afa-negus — cutting off hands, up to 75 lashes (jiraf), and monetary fine.
5) The emperor — capital punishment, up to 100 lashes (jiraf), monetary fine, and life imprisonment. Capital punishment is carried out by hanging, or, in case of murder, it is carried out by relatives in the same manner in which the murderer killed. When the murderer is sentenced, he is given over to the relatives, who take him outside town and kill him. Very often, this task is entrusted to a child. Bulatovich,
“Tekle Yeshaw Explains the History of Anole - Hiber Radio”kun emotional nama hin goodhu lataa?
Kana obsuun ni danda'ama?dhabilee Aada adda lola Oromoo irra labsan jiru. Bareefama Moresh (Gala Gaday) facasee fi Paltak Room Debtara, Abba Mela,
By Falmataa Oromo
Chalk, F., and
K. Jonassohn, 1990, The History of Sociology of Genocide:
3. Crummey, D., 1971, ‘The Violence of Tewodros’, Journal of Ethiopian Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 107-125.
4. De Salviac, de Martial, 1901, Une peuple antique au pays Menelik: les Galla grand nation africaine, Paris. Translate by Dr. Ayalew Kanno
5. Fein, H., 2002, ‘States of Genocide and Other States’, in Rittner, C., J., K. Roth, and J. M. Smith, (eds.), Will Genocide Ever End?, St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House.
6. Haji, Abbas, 1995, ‘Arsi Oromo Political and Military Resistance against the Shoan Conquest, (1881-86)’, Journal of Oromo Studies, Vol. II, Nos. 1 and 2.
1927, Seven Years in Southern Abyssinia,
8.Prouty, C., 1986, Empress Taytu and Menelik II: Ethiopia 1883-1910, Trenton, NJ: The Red Sea Press.
1991, A History of Modern
|Copyright ©2008 GPO/OPC Allrights Reserved|