From Piankhi to Shabaka: Ancestors to Egyptians, Arabic-speaking Sudanese, Oromos, Sidamas. Part VI

Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis
In an earlier article titled "Egypt, Ethiopia - Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist Fallacy of Ethiopianism, and Nubia" (, I focused on the colonially masterminded project against Eastern Africa, which involved the projection of fake identity on both, the Arabic speaking populations of Central Sudan, and the Semitic Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians. This was effectuated by means of two fake ideologies, Pan-Arabism and Ethiopianism.

Pan-Arabism was the fake doctrine fabricated by the colonial Orientalist academia in order to project the fake Arab identity onto the former.

Ethiopianism was the fake doctrine fabricated by the colonial Orientalist academia in order to project the fake Ethiopian identity onto the latter.

As much as Egyptians, Arabic-speaking Sudanese, Libyans, Tunisians, Algerians, Mauritanians and Moroccans are not Arab of origin, so much the Semitic Amhara and Tigray are not Ethiopian of descent, and therefore cannot dare use the fair name of Ethiopia for their monstrous, pseudo-historic education, racist policies, and antihuman tyranny.

I underscored that the evil, colonial diplomacy and academia, in order to better implement Pan-Arabism in Sudan and effectively disorient the Arabic-speaking Sudanese from the search of their true identity and historical heritage, machinated the renaming of the Kushitic ? Ethiopian Antiquity, monuments, History, and culture as "Nubian".

Fake Term "Nubian" ? Why?

To clarify that the non-Egyptian antiquities of the Egyptian South and the Sudanese North cannot be called Nubian, I initiated a series of articles, presenting the historical interaction among the Hamitic ? Kushitic Egyptians, the Kushitic Ethiopians (ancestors to today´s Arabic-speaking Sudanese, Oromos, Sidamas, and other Eastern African Kushites), and the Medjay ? Nubians, who are ancestors to the modern Nubians. The latter may now be the exclusive inhabitants of a vast part of the territory of Ancient Kush (Ethiopia), namely from the South of Aswan to Wadi Halfa and further to Debba, but in the Antiquity, they were a minority in the said territory (and the rest of Egypt); the Ancient Nubians never formed a state of their own in the pre-Christian times.

Consequently, the Nubians cannot be considered as the only or the primary heir to either the Egyptian or the Kushitic / Ethiopian Antiquity, History, monuments, and Heritage. In other words, the Egyptian temple of Isis at Philae cannot be characterized as a Nubian temple, and the Kushitic / Ethiopian temple of Amun of Napata (in today´s Karima, North Sudan) cannot be labeled "Nubian temple"; the latter is valid for even one more reason, namely that there is no Nubian population living there today as well.

The term "Nubian" cannot be given to the kings of Kerma, Napata and Meroe ? the three most important capitals of Pre-Christian Kush / Ethiopia ? because these kings were not Nubians but Kushites / Ethiopians; speaking at both, the ethnic and the linguistic levels, they were as different as Ancient Greeks from Ancient Babylonians.

The term has been introduced in order to effectively detach the Arabic-speaking Sudanese from the Search for their identity, prevent them from properly assessing their tremendous historical heritage, further engulf them into the Pan-Arabist fallacy, and definitely disconnect them from their brethren, namely the tyrannized Oromos, Sidamas, and the other subjugated Kushitic nations that have been comprised within the non-Kushitic, non-African, Semitic colonial state of the racist Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians, who are totally unrelated to the Oromos, the Sidamas, and the other subjugated Kushitic nations of Abyssinia.

For the above reason, the Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians are absolutely irrelevant of the historical name of Ethiopia, which belongs only to he Arabic-speaking Sudanese, the Oromos, the Sidamas, and the other subjugated Kushitic nations of Abyssinia, and they have to be forced - by any means - not to use it in the future.

An Outline of the Earlier Parts of the Series

To extensively analyze the subject, I expanded in five earlier articles, covering

1) the early periods of Prehistory and History (A-Group, C-Group, Kerma kingdom) of Ancient Kush ? Ethiopia (Sudan),

2) the Anti-Egyptian alliance between the Kushitic / Ethiopian kingdom of Kerma and the Asiatic invaders of Egypt, the notorious Hyksos,

3) the liberation of Egypt from the Hyksos rulers,

4) the cooperation of the Egyptian throne with the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse opposing the Kerma rulers in view of the eradication of the latter,

5) the presence of the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse in the pharaonic court, notably the high priestess Ahmose Nefertari, a Kushite / Ethiopian noble lady and Queen Mother of the Pharaoh Amenhotep I,

6) the eradication of "evil" kingdom of Kerma by Thutmose I, and the annexation of the entire Kas (Kush / Ethiopia) by Egypt,

7) the rise and the fall of the Egyptian New Kingdom,

8) the permanent clash of the monotheistic and polytheistic priesthoods of Amun of Thebes during the times of New Kingdom,

9) the rise and the fall (14th century BCE) of the religious ? spiritual revolution of Akhenaten of Egypt, who preached the monotheistic system (Atonism ? the system evolving around Aton, the Only God) that pre-modeled the Kushitic / Ethiopian monotheism and the later monotheistic Kushitic religions,

10) the rift caused by Atonism within the Egyptian society,

11) the division and decadence of Egypt into several countries and dynasties after the victory of Ramesses III over the Sea Peoples,

12) the prevalence of the polytheistic Amun Theban priesthood throughout Upper Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia that remained united under the Thebes-based Amun high priests for no less than three centuries after Egypt´s split,

13) the shift of power from Thebes to Napata, whereby a local, Kushitic / Ethiopian dynasty rose to defend not only Kush / Ethiopia but also Thebes, against the monotheistic priesthood of Heliopolis, the Delta Kings of Lower Egypt, and their Libyan allies, and

14) the beginning of the Napatan dynasty of Kush / Ethiopia, and the reigns of Alara and Kashta, the early Napatan rulers, who attributed great importance to their interconnection and interaction with the polytheistic Amun Theban priesthood up to the point of consecrating female relatives (like Amenardis (Imen-iirdisi), the Divine (female) Adorer of Amun, and Divine Wife of Amun) to the Theban clergy.

Here are the titles of, and the links to, the first five parts of the series:

"The Common Origins of Egypt, and Ethiopia ? Sudan. Oromos, Arabic Speaking Sudanese, Nubians. I" (

"Hamitic-Kushitic Origins of Egypt and Ethiopia / Sudan. Oromos, Arabic Speaking Sudanese, Nubians II" (,

"Egyptian Rule over Kush-Ethiopia, and Ahmose Nefertari, Foremother of Oromos and Sudanese. Part III" (

"Egypt, Akhenaten, Aton Monotheism: Origins of Oromos´ and Sidamas´ Kushitic / Ethiopian Religions" (

"Napata: Egypt Ruled by the Forefathers of Arabic-speaking Sudanese and Oromos (not Amharas). Part V" (

In the present, sixth article of the series, I will focus on the successors of Kashta, who represent the zenith of the Napatan dynasty that Manetho, the illustrious Egyptian historiographer of the first Macedonian Ptolemaic century (3rd century BCE), rightfully labeled ´Ethiopian´ (i.e. Kushitic) ? which means totally unrelated to Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians.

Piankhy and the Clash with the Heliopolitan Priesthood backed by the Berbers

For ca. 14 years, Piankhi (or rather Piye as his name is correctly spelled) ruled Egypt (730 ? 716), having succeeded to his father Kashta. This period was very critical, and predetermined the events that followed over the next centuries. The monotheistic priesthood of Heliopolis could not accept the strong basis created by the joint polytheistic priesthoods of Amun of Thebes and Amun of Napata, and they thus mobilized the Berber princes who were in control of territories spanning over today´s Egypt´s western confines, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.

Executing their plans, Tefnakht rose to the throne of Sais, thus claiming control over Lower Egypt, and tried to destabilize the delicate balance of the politically divided Egypt in order to gather support and attack the South.

Tefnakht defeated the fleet of the Hermupolitan pharaoh, and thus forced Nimlot of Hermupolis (today´s Ashmunein, south of Al Minya) to side with him, thus gaining control over the strategic territory of middle Egypt (the term is rather conventional).

He then proceeded to the South, besieging Henen Neswt (Herakleopolis, today´s Ihnasiyah), and thus the local pharaoh Paftjaubast asked Piankhi´s assistance. Piankhi reacted with great speed, visited Thebes to celebrate the Opet festival, which coincided with the occasion, and commanding his soldiers to perform purification rituals, gave a character of holy war to the clash with the Northerners, offering sacrifices to Amun of Thebes and Amun of Napata.

He managed to defeat the allies armies of Tefnakht of Sais, Nimlot of Hermupolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis, and Iuput II of Leontopolis. The last stage of the war ended with the invasion of Hermupolis, after a five months siege. Following this development, Piankhi paid formal visits to the temples of Ptah of Memphis, the aboriginal place of Piankhi´s polytheistic ideology and comprehension of the Ancient Egyptian religion, and of Atum of Heliopolis, the religious center of his opponents, which was still a venerable shrine manned by a formidable priesthood impossible to neglect at the moment.

It seems that the Kushitic / Ethiopian victory over the Berbers and their Lower Egyptian allies was decisive but not overwhelming; most of the allied kings paid tribute to Piankhi of Thebes and Napata, and ensured their relative political independence. Only Tefnakht did not, escaping in parts of the Delta that were out of reach for Piankhi, who was already at a distance of more than 2000 km from Napata!

The defeated kings remained in their capitals, and Piankhi returned to Napata, drawing the correct conclusion about Egypt´s perplex situation which prevented the assertion of full Napatan control over the entire territory of the Two Lands (Ancient Egyptian "Tawy", another name for Egypt).

Piankhi was buried in the early Napatan necropolis, in today´s El Kurru, but there he was the first to have an entire pyramid built above his tomb, thus rekindling outside Egypt a millennia old Egyptian tradition that had not been practiced in Egypt for more than 1100 years.

Certainly smaller than the Egyptian, archetypal, pyramids, the Kushitic / Ethiopian pyramids were much steeper. The introduction of this style of mortuary architecture in Kush / Ethiopia proved to be greatly successful and long lasting; either in Napata or later in Meroe, pyramids were built down to the Roman and early Christian times. In more than a millennium, the ancestors of today´s Oromos, Sidamas and Arabic-speaking Sudanese built more pyramids than those existing on Egyptian soil today!

About Piankhi´s reign duration, there are very diverging opinions formed on different, and at times contradictory or controversial, data; there is still a possibility to reconcile the long reign hypothesis (31 years) with the potentiality of an otherwise non-documented regency (co-ruling) that Piankhi may have been offered by his father in an attempt to promote the young prince to the position of Kashta´s heir apparent.

Shabaka, the Conquest of the Egyptian North, and the Search for the Authentic Hamitic ? Kushitic Spirituality

Piankhi´s younger brother, Shabaka, son of Kashta and Pabatma, rose to power in Napata and Thebes to rule for another 14 years, and consolidate Kushitic / Ethiopian dominance in Egypt´s northernmost parts. To do so, Shabaka undertook a great architectural and restorative work at Thebes. His famous pink granite stele survived down to our days. Shabaka faced an attack undertaken by the Northern pharaohs, and managed to counterattack and prevail; according to later sources (Manetho), he had Bubastis burnt down in the process. Shabaka and his mainly Kushitic / Ethiopian administration had a particular interest in the Egyptian History and Literature, which consists in an additional proof of the common origins of the Kushites / Ethiopians and the Hamitic - Kushitic Egyptians.

Guided by the Egyptian polytheistic Theban Amun priesthood, Shabaka viewed his philological interest in the Egyptian past as part of his personal search for authentic spirituality. Consequently, in the same way Egyptians soldiers, 800 years earlier, had been enthralled to stand in front of the holy mountain of Amun of Napata, Shabaka was enchanted to unveil the Theban mysteries and identify the transcendental realities of the diachronic Hamitic ? Kushitic Soul.

The Shabaka stone, stolen from Egypt and currently exhibited at the British Museum, documents the philological ? spiritual search of Shabaka. Measuring 66cm in height and 137 cm in width, the Shabaka stone was used by the Amun priests in order to inscribe the text of an old, decaying papyrus. Of great value for the Egyptian and the Kushitic / Ethiopian polytheistic priesthood, the hieratic papyrus text consisted in a highly important theological document composed by the early Memphitic priesthood of Ptah. The text presents Ptah as the Creator God of the Universe; such text could only serve, at the times of Shabaka, as reconfirmation of the polytheistic priestly claims for prevalence throughout Kemet (Egypt) and Kush (Ethiopia), thus reflecting the theoretical, theological, and ideological needs of the polytheistic priesthoods of Thebes and Napata.

Shabaka was buried in the early Napatan necropolis at El Kurru, a few kilometers southwestwards of today´s Karima. He was succeeded by his nephew, Shabataka, son of Piankhi.

Shabaka´s worst mistake was to offer shelter and support to Iamanni, king of Ashdod and enemy of the then world´s most formidable empire, Assyria. This mistake proved to be lethal for the Kushitic / Ethiopian rule over Egypt. On this subject, I will focus in a forthcoming article.

Further readings:

1. The Nubian Conquest of Egypt and Dynasty 25

Kushite control of Upper Egypt was not long tolerated by the ruling families of Lower (northern) Egypt, who were then divided into several autonomous kingdoms. By Piankhy's 20th year they had formed an aggressive military alliance, led by a chief named Tefnakht of the Delta city of Sais. Piankhy's famous Victory Stela, now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, which is dated to his year 21 and was set up at Gebel Barkal, describes his campaign northward into Egypt to put an end to the "rebellion" and details his ultimate conquest of all of the country except certain parts of the Nile Delta. The stela is especially interesting in revealing some unusual royal Nubian personality traits: the king ever sought to avoid bloodshed; he forgave his enemies; and he made special devotions to the gods of the northern towns fallen to his arms. Despite his stunning victory,

Piankhy had no interest in direct rule over northern Egypt; he was content merely to control Thebes and the western desert oases. He thus withdrew again to Napata to proclaim his triumphs and to rebuild the old Egyptian temples.

Upon the death of Piankhy about 712 BC, he was buried beside his ancestors, beneath a modest pyramid at el-Kurru with a subterranean chamber accessed by staircase. It was a tomb type that would remain in use, in one form or another, by his successors in Kush for the next ten centuries. Besides tombs for his major and minor wives, he also provided tombs for four of his horses, which were buried standing up and facing east. Burying horses - sometimes up to eight at a time in separate tombs side by side - was a custom continued by each of Piankhy's successors at el-Kurru.

2. Reign Length

Piye adopted two throne names: Usimare and Sneferre during his reign and was much more passionate (in common with many kings of Nubia) about the worship of the god Amun. He revitalised the moribund Great Temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal, first built under Thutmose III of the New Kingdom by employing numerous sculptors and stone masons from Egypt to renew the temple. He was once thought to have also used the throne name 'Menkheperre' ("the Manifestation of Ra abides") but this prenomen has now been recognised as belonging to a local Theban king named Ini instead who was a contemporary of Piye. Piye's Highest known Date was long thought to be the Year 24 III Akhet day 10 date mentioned in the "Smaller Dakhla Stela" (Ashmolean Museum No.1894) from his reign. This sandstone stela measures 81.5 cm by 39.5 cm and was discovered from the Sutekh temple at Mut al-Kharib in the Western Desert Oasis town of Dakhla, according to a JEA 54(1968) article by Jac Janssen.

However, in early 2006, the Tomb of the Southern Vizier Padiamonet, son of Pamiu, was discovered in the third Upper Terrace of Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary Temple at Deir El-Bahari by the Polish Mission for the Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. It was carved approximately 8 metres into the rock face of the temple cliff in an area where several other Third Intermediate Period and Late Period burials have also been discovered. According to this article in the Polish news site Nauka w Polsce (Science & Scholarship in Poland), Padiamonet's tomb contains a burial inscription which is dated to Year 27 of Piye.[1] Dr. Zbigniew Szafrański, Director of the Polish Mission, states regarding the find:

The tomb had been plundered. We don't know whether in antiquity or in more recent times; however we have found fragments of the mummy. On the basis of the inscriptions found in the tomb we suspect that buried there was the vizier Padiamonet who died in the 27th Year of the rule of the Pharaoh Piankhi (Piye) from the 25th Dynasty.[4]

Szafrański further notes that the Mummy cartonnage (a cover in which the mummy is placed) found in Padiamonet's burial chamber featured "beautiful, ornate, colourful pictures [in which] you can read in hieroglyphs the name of the Vizier. It is also visible on the fragments of the [mummy] bandages."[4]

The Great Temple at Gebel Barkal contains carved relief scenes depicting Piye celebrating a Heb Sed Festival but there is some doubt among scholars as to whether it portrayed a genuine Sed Feast or was merely Anticipatory. Under the latter scenario, Piye would have planned to hold a Jubilee Festival in this Temple in his 30th Year?hence his recruitment of Egypt's Artisans to decorate it?but died before this event took place.

While Piye's precise reign length is still unknown, this new find and his subsequently higher Year 27 date affirms the traditional view that Piye lived into his Year 30 and celebrated his Jubilee that year. Kenneth Kitchen in his book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, has suggested a reign of 31 years for Piye based on the Year 7 donation stela of a certain Shepsesre Tefnakht whom he viewed as Piye's opponent. However, this stela is now believed to refer instead to a second later Saite king called Tefnakht II from the late Nubian era because it is almost similar in style and format to a newly revealed donation stela?from a private collection?which is dated to Year 2 of Necho I's reign. (This new document was analysed by Olivier Perdu in CRAIBL 2002) Hence, no reliance can be placed on the Year 8 stela of Shepsesre Tefnakht to determine Piye's reign length. However, Dr Szafrański's recent discovery suggests that the Gebel Barkal Heb Sed scenes are genuine and supports the conventional view that Piye enjoyed a reign of roughly three full decades. More recently, in the February 2008 issue of National Geographic, Robert Draper wrote that Piye ruled for 35 years and invaded all of Egypt in his 20th regnal year in about 730 BC[5]; however, no archaeological source gives Piye a reign of more than 31 years at present.

3. The Stela of Piye

Year 21, first month of the first season, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Meriamon-Piankhi, living forever.

Command which my majesty speaks: "Hear of what I did, more than the ancestors. I am a king, divine emanation, living image of Atum, who came forth from the womb, adorned as a ruler, of whom those greater than he were afraid; whose father knew, and whose mother recognized that he would rule in the egg, the Good God, beloved of the gods, achieving with his hands, Meriamon-Piankhi.

One came to say to his majesty: " A chief of the west, the great prince of Neter, Tefnakhte is in the nome of ..... , in the nome of Xois, in Hapi, in .... in Ayan, in Pernub, and in Memphis. He has seized the whole west from the back-lands to Ithtowe, coming southward with a numerous army, while the Two Lands are united behind him, and the princes and rulers of walled towns are as dogs at his heels. No stronghold has closed [its doors in] the nomes of the South: Mer-Atum, Per-Sekhemkheperre, the temple of Sebek, Permezed, Theknesh, and every city of the west, they have opened the doors for fear of him. He turned to the east, they opened to him likewise: Hatbenu, Tozi, Hatseteni, Pernebteptih. Behold, [he] besieges Heracleopolis, he has completely invested it, not letting comers-out come out, and not letting goers-in go in, fighting every day. He measured it off in its whole circuit, every prince knows his wall; he stations every man of the princes and rulers of walled towns over his (respective) portion.

Then [his majesty] heard [the message] with courageous heart, laughing, and joyous of heart.

These princes and commanders of the army who were in their cities sent to his majesty daily, saying: "Wilt thou be silent, even to forgetting the Southland, the nomes of the [court]? While Tefnakhte advances his conquest and finds none to repel his arm.

Namlot ... ... , prince of Hatweret, he has overthrown the wall of Nefrus, he has demolished his own city, for fear of him who might take it from him, in order to besiege another city. Behold, he goes to follow at his heels, having cast off allegiance to his majesty. He tarries with him like one of [his vassals in] the nome of Oxyrhyncos, and gives to him gifts, as much as he desires, of everything that he has found."

Then his majesty sent to the princes and commanders of the army who were in Egypt: the commander Purem, and the commander Lemersekeny, and every commander of his majesty who was in Egypt (saying): "Hasten into battle line, engage in battle, surround .... , capture its people, its cattle, its ships upon the river. Let not the peasants go forth to the field, let not the plowmen plow, beset the frontier of the Hare nome, fight against it daily. " Then they did so.

Then his majesty sent an army to Egypt, charging them earnestly: "[Delay] not [day nor] night, as at a game of draughts; (but) fight ye on sight. Force battle upon him from afar. If he says to the infantry and chariotry of another city, 'Hasten;' (then) ye shall abide until his army comes, that ye may fight as he says. But if his allies be in another city, (then) let one hasten to them; these princes whom he has brought for his support: Libyans and favorite soldiers, force battle upon them [first[. Say, 'We know not what he cries in mustering troops. Yoke the war horses, the best of thy stable; draw up the line of battle! Thou knowest that Amon is the god who has sent us.' "

"When ye arrive at Thebes, before Karnak, ye shall enter into the water, ye shall bathe in the river, ye shall dress in [fine linen], unstring the bow, loosen the arrow. Let not the chief boast as a mighty man; there is no strength to the mighty without him, He maketh the weak-armed into the strong-armed, so that multitudes flee from the feeble, and one alone taketh a thousand men. Sprinkle yourselves with the water of his altars, sniff the ground before him. Say ye to him, 'Give us the way, that we may fight in the shadow of thy sword. (As for) the generation whom thou hast sent out, when its attack occurs, multitudes flee before it.' "

Then they threw themselves upon their bellies before his majesty (saying): "It is thy name which endues us with might, and thy counsel is the mooring-post of thy army; thy bread is in our bellies on every march, thy beer quenches our thirst. It is thy valor that giveth us might, and there is strength at the remembrance of thy name; (for) no army prevails whose commander is a coward. Who is thy equal therein? Thou art a victorious king, achieving with his hands, chief of the work of war."

They sailed down-stream, they arrived at Thebes, they did according to all that his majesty had said.

They sailed down-stream upon the river, they found many ships coming up-streams bearing soldiers, sailors, and commanders, every valiant man of the Northland, equipped with weapons of war, to fight against the army of his majesty. Then there was made a great slaughter among them, (whose) number was unknown. Their troops and their ships were captured, and brought as living captives to the place where his majesty was.

They then went to the [frontier] of Heracleopolis, demanding battle.

List of the princes and kings of the Northland, namely:

King Namlot and

King Yewepet

Chief of Me, Sheshonk, of Per-Osiris, lord of Ded

Great chief of Me, Zeamonefonekh, of Per-Benebded together with his eldest son, who was commander of the army of Per-Thutuprehui.

The army of the hereditary prince, Beknenef, together with every chief wearing a feather who was in the Northland; together with

King Osorkon, who was in Per-Bast and in the district of Ranofer

Every prince, the rulers of the walled towns in the West, in the East, (and) the islands in the midst, were united of one mind as followers of the great chief of the West, ruler of the walled towns of the Northland, prophet of Neit, mistress of Sais, sem priest of Ptah, Tefnakhte.

They went forth against them; then they made a great slaughter among them, greater than anything. Their ships were captured upon the river. The remnant crossed over and landed on the west side before Per-Peg.

When the land brightened early in the morning, the army of his majesty crossed over against them. Army mingled with army; they slew a multitude of people among them; horses of unknown number; a rout ensued among the remnant.

They fled to the Northland, from the blow, great and evil beyond everything.

List of slaughter made among them:

People: .... men.

King Namlot fled up-stream southward, when it was told him: "Hermopolis is in the midst of the foe from the army of his majesty, who capture its people and its cattle." Then he entered into Hermopolis, while the army of his majesty was upon the river, in the harbor of the Hare nome. Then they heard of it, and they surrounded the Hare nome on its four sides, not letting comers-out come out, and not letting goers-in go in.

They sent to report to the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Meriamon-Piankhi, given life, on every conflict which they had fought, and on every victory of his majesty.

Then his majesty was enraged thereat like a panther (saying): "Have they allowed a remnant of the army of the Northland to remain? allowing him that went forth of them to go forth, to tell of his campaign? not causing their death, in order to destroy the last of them? I swear: as Re loves me! I will myself go northward, that I may destroy that which he has done, that I may make him turn back from fighting, forever."

"Now, afterward when the ceremonies of the New Year are celebrated, I will offer to my father, Amon, at his beautiful feast, when he makes his beautiful appearance of the New Year, that he may send me forth in peace, to behold Amon at the beautiful Feast of Opet; that I may bring his image forth in procession to Luxor at his beautiful feast (called): "Night of the Feast of Opet," and at the feast (called): "Abiding in Thebes." which Re made for him in the beginning; and that I may bring him in procession to his house, resting upon his throne, on the "Day of Bringing in the God," in the third month of the first season, second day; that I may make the Northland taste the taste of my fingers."

Then the army which was there in Egypt, heard of the wrath which his majesty felt toward them. Then they fought against Per-Mezed of the Oxyrhynchite nome, they took it like a flood of water, and they sent to his majesty; (but) his heart was not satisfied therewith,

Then they fought against Tetehen, great in might. They found it filled with soldiers, with every valiant man of the Northland. Then the battering-ram was employed against it, its wall was overthrown, and a great slaughter was made among them. of unknown number; also the son of the chief of Me, Tefnakhte. Then they sent to his majesty concerning it, (but) his heart was not satisfied therewith.

Then they fought against Hatbenu, its interior was breached, the army of his majesty entered into it. Then they sent to his majesty, (but) his heart was not satisfied therewith.

First month of the first season, ninth day; his majesty went northward to Thebes, and completed the Feast of Amon at the Feast of Opet. His majesty sailed northward to the city of the Hare nome; his majesty came forth from the cabin of the ship, the horses were yoked up, the chariot was mounted, the terror of his majesty reached to the end of the Asiatics, every heart was heavy with the fear of him.

Then his majesty went forth .... .... to hate his soldiers, enraged at them like a panther (saying): "Is the steadfastness of your fighting this slackness in my affairs? Has the year reached its end, when the fear of me has been inspired in the Northland? A great and evil blow shall be smitten them."

He set up for himself the camp on the southwest of Hermopolis and besieged it daily. An embankment was made, to inclose the wall; a tower was raised to elevate the archers while shooting, and the slingers while slinging stones, and slaying people among them daily.

Days passed and Hermopolis was foul to the nose without her usual fragrance. Then Hermopolis threw herself upon her belly, and plead before the king.

Messengers came forth and descended bearing everything beautiful to behold: gold, every splendid costly stone, clothing in a chest, and the diadem which was upon his head, the uraeus which inspired the fear of him; without ceasing during many days, pleading with his diadem.

Then they sent his wife , the king's wife, and king's daughter, Nestent, to plead with the king's wives, king's concubines, king's daughters, and king's sisters, to throw herself upon her belly in the harem, before the king's wives (saying): "We come to you, O king's wives, king's daughters, and king's sisters, that ye may appease Horus, lord of the palace, whose fame is great and his triumph mighty. Grant that he .... .... .... me; lo, he ........... him. Lo, [... ...] ........... [....] ............ him. Lo, [... ...] .......... [Speak] to him, that he may incline to the one that praises him ............

Lo, who has led the? who has led thee? Who, then has led thee? Who has led thee? .... .... thou didst [forsake] the way of life. Did heaven rain with arrows? I am [content] when the Southerners do obeisance and the Northerners (say): 'Put us in thy shadow.' Lo, it is evil [...] ... ... bearing his food. The heart is a steering-oar; it capsizes its owner through that which is from the god. It seeth flame as coolness [in] the heart .... .... There is no old man, ....... Thy nomes are full of youths."

He threw himself upon his belly before his majesty (saying): "[Be appeased], Horus, lord of the palace, it is thy might which has done it. I am one of the king's slaves, paying impost into the treasury [.........] their impost. I have brought for thee more than they."
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Then he presented much silver, gold, lapis lazuli, malachite, bronze, and all costly stones. Then he filled the treasury with this tribute; he brought a horse in the right hand and a sistrum in the left hand, of gold and lapis lazuli.

Then his [majesty] appeared in splendour in his palace, proceeded to the house of Thoth, lord of Hermopolis, and he slew bulls, calves, and fowl for his father, lord of Hermopolis, and the eight gods in the house of the eight gods. The army of the Hare nome acclaimed and rejoiced, saying: "How beautiful is Horus, resting in his city, the Son of Re, Piankhi! Celebrate for us a jubilee, even as thou hast protected the Hare nome."

His majesty proceeded to the house of King Namlot, he entered every chamber of the king's house, his treasury and his magazines. He caused that there be brought to him; the king's wives and king's daughters; they saluted his majesty in the fashion of women, (but) his majesty turned not his face to them.

His majesty proceeded to the stable of the horses and the quarters of the foals. When he saw that they had suffered hunger, he said: "I swear, as Re loves me, and as my nostrils are rejuvenated with life, it is more grievous in my heart that my horses have suffered hunger, than any evil deed that thou hast done, in the prosecution of thy desire. It has borne witness of thee to me, the fear of thy associates for thee. Didst thou not know that the god's shadow is over me? and that my fortune never perishes because of him? Would that another had done it to me! I could not but condemn him on account of it. When I was fashioned in the womb, and created in the divine egg the seed of the god was in me. By his ka, I do nothing without him; he it is who commands me to do it."

Then his possessions were assigned to the treasury, and his granary to the divine offerings of Amon in Karnak.

The ruler of Heracleopolis Pefnefdibast came, bearing tribute to the palace: gold, silver, every costly stone, and horses of the choicest of the stable. He threw himself upon his belly before his majesty; he said: "Hail to thee, Horus, mighty king, Bull subduer of Bulls! The Nether World had seized me, and I was submerged in darkness, upon which the light has (now) shone. I found not a friend in the evil day, who was steadfast in the day of battle; but thou, O mighty king, thou hast expelled the darkness from me. I will labor together with (thy) subjects, and Heracleopolis shall pay taxes into thy treasury, thou likeness of Harakhte, chief of the imperishable stars. As he was, so art thou king; as he perishes not so thou shalt not perish, O King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Piankhi, living forever."

His majesty sailed north to the opening of the canal beside Illahun; he found Per-Sekhemkhperre with its valiant wall raised, and its stronghold closed, filled with every valiant man of the Northland. Then his majesty sent to them, saying: "Ye living in death! Ye living in death! Ye insignificant .... and miserable ones! Ye living in death! If an hour passes without opening to me, behold, ye are of the number of the fallen; and that is [painful] to the king. Close not the gates of your life, to be brought to the block this day. Love not death, nor hate life ......... before the whole land.

Then they sent to his majesty, saying: "Lo, the shadow of the god is over thee; the son of Nut, he gives to thee his two arms; the thought of thy heart comes to pass immediately, like that which comes forth from the mouth of a god. Lo, thou art fashioned as the face of a god; we see by the decree of thy hands. Lo, thy city, his stronghold; [do] thy [pleasure] therewith. Let the goers-in go in there, and the comers-out come out. Let his majesty do what he will."

Then they came out, with the son of the chief of Me, Tefnakhte. The army of his majesty entered into it, without slaying one of all the people. He found ............ and treasurers to seal his possessions. His treasuries were assigned to the Treasury, and his granaries to the divine offerings of his father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes.

His majesty sailed northward; he found that Mer-Atum, the house of Sokar, lord of Sehez, had been closed, and was inaccessible. It had set fighting in its heart, taking .... ..... Fear [seized] them; terror sealed their mouth. Then his majesty sent to them, saying: "Behold, two ways are before you; choose ye as ye will: open, and ye shall live; close and ye shall die. My majesty will not pass by a closed city." Then they opened immediately; his majesty entered into this city, and offered .... .... .... [to] Menhy of Sehez. His treasury was assigned [to the Treasury], his granaries to the divine offerings of Amon of Karnak.

His majesty sailed north to Ithtowe; he found the rampart closed, and the wall filled with the valiant troops of the Northland. Then they opened the stronghold, and threw themselves upon [their] bellies [before] his majesty (saying): "Thy father has assigned to thee his inheritance. Thine are the Two Lands, thine is what is therein, thine is all that is on earth."

His majesty entered to cause a great oblation to be offered to the gods residing in this city, consisting of bulls, calves, fowl, and everything good and pure. Then his treasury was assigned to the Treasury and his granaries to the divine offerings [of Amon].

His majesty sailed north to] Memphis; then he sent to them, saying: "Shut not up, fight not, thou abode of Shu in the beginning. As for him that would go in, let him go in; as for him that would come out, let him come out; and let not them that would leave be hindered. I would offer an oblation to Ptah and to the gods dwelling in Memphis, I would sacrifice to Sokar in the mysterious place, I would behold 'Him-Who-is-South-of-His-Wall,' that I may sail north in peace. [The people] of Memphis [shall be] safe and sound; not even a child shall weep. Look ye to nomes of the South; not a single one has been slain therein, except the enemies who blasphemed against the god, who were dispatched as rebels."

Then they closed their stronghold; they sent forth an army against some of the soldiers of his majesty, being artisans, chief builders and sailors .... .... .... the harbor of Memphis.

Lo, that chief of Sais arrived at Memphis in the night, charging his infantry and his sailors, all the best of his army, a total of 8000 men, charging them very earnestly: "Behold, Memphis is filled with troops of all the best of the Northland; (with) barley and spelt and all kinds of grain, the granaries are running over; (with) all weapons of [war. It is fortified with] a wall; a great battlement has been built, executed with skilful workmanship. The river flows around the east side, and no opportunity of attack is found there. Cattle yards are there, filled with oxen; the treasury is supplied with everything: silver, gold, copper, clothing, incense, honey, oil."

"I will go, and I will give something to the chiefs of the North, and I will open to them their nomes. I will be .... .... [There will be but a few] days until I return." He mounted upon a horse, he asked not for his chariot, he went north in fear of his majesty.

When day broke, at early morning, his majesty reached Memphis. When he landed on the north of it, he found that the water had approached to the walls, the ships mooring at [the walls of] Memphis. Then his majesty saw it was strong, and that the wall was raised by a new rampart, and battlements manned with mighty men. There was found no way of attacking it. Every man told his opinion among the army of his majesty, according to every rule of war. Every man said; "Let us besiege [it] .... ; lo, its troops are numerous." Others said: "Let a causeway be made against it, let us elevate the ground to its walls. Let us bind together a tower; let us erect masts and make the spars into a bridge to it. We will divide it on this (plan) on every side of it, on the high ground and ..... on the north of it, in order to elevate the ground at its walls, that we may find a way for our feet."

Then his majesty was enraged against it like a panther; he said: "I swear, as Re loves me, as my father, Amon [who fashioned me], favors me, this shall befall it, according to the command of Amon. This is what men say: '[The Northland] and the nomes of the South, they opened to him from afar, they did not set Amon in their heart, they knew not what he commanded. He (i.e. Amon) made him (i.e. Piankhi) to show forth his fame, to cause his might to be seen.' I will take it like a flood of water. I have commanded .... ..... ..... ."

Then he sent forth his fleet and his army to assault the harbor of Memphis; they brought to him every ferry-boat, every [cargo]-boat, every transport, and the ships, as many as there were, which had moored in the harbor of Memphis, with the bow-rope fastened among its houses. [There was not] a citizen who wept, among all the soldiers of his majesty.

His majesty himself came to line up the ships, as many as there were. His majesty commanded his army (saying): "Forward against it! Mount the walls! Penetrate the houses over the river. If one of you gets through upon the wall, let him not halt before it, [so that] the (hostile) troops may not repulse you. It were vile that we should close up the South, should land [in] the North and lay siege in 'Balances of the Two Lands'."

Then Memphis was taken as (by) a flood of water, a multitude of people were slain therein, and brought as living captives to the place where his majesty was.

Now afterwards, when it dawned, and the second day came, his majesty sent people into it, protecting the temple of the god. He .... the holy of holies of the gods, offered to the community of gods of Hatkeptah, cleansed Memphis with natron and incense, installed the priests in their places.

His majesty proceeded to the house of [Ptah], his purification was performed in the Dewat-chamber, and every custom that is practised upon a king was fulfilled upon him. He entered into the temple, and a great oblation was made for his father, "Ptah-South-of-His-Wall", consisting of bulls, calves, fowl, and everything good. His majesty proceeded to his house.

Then all the nomes which were in the district of Memphis, heard (of it): Herypedemy, Penineywe, the Tower of Beyew, the Oasis of Bit; they opened the strongholds, and fled away; none knew the place whither they had gone.

King Yewepet came, and the chief of Me, Akenesh, and the hereditary prince, Pediese, together with all the princes of the Northland, bearing their tribute, to behold the beauty of his majesty.

Then the treasuries and granaries of Memphis were assigned to the divine offerings of Amon, of Ptah, and of the gods dwelling in Hatkeptah.

When the land brightened, very early in the morning. his majesty proceeded eastward, and an offering was made for Atum in Khereha, the divine ennead in the house of the ennead, the cavern and the gods dwelling in it; consisting of bulls, calves, and fowl; that they might give life, prosperity, and health to the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Piankhi, living forever.

His majesty proceeded to Heliopolis, upon that mount of Khereha, on the highway of (the god) Sep to Khereha. His majesty proceeded to the camp, which was on the west of Eti. His purification was performed, and he was cleansed in the pool of Kebeh, and he bathed his face in the river of Nun, in which Re bathes his face.

Proceeding to the Sand-hill in Heliopolis, a great oblation was made upon the Sand-hill in Heliopolis, in the presence of Re, at his rising, consisting of white oxen, milk, myrrh, incense, and every sweet-smelling wood.

He came, proceeding to the house of Re, and entered into the temple with great praise. The chief ritual priest praised the god, that rebels might be repelled from the king. The Dewat-chamber was visited, that the sedeb-garment might be fastened on; he was purified with incense and libations; garlands for the pyramidion-house were presented to him, and flowers were brought to him. He ascended the steps to the great window, to behold Re in the pyramidion-house.

The king himself stood alone, he broke through the bolts, opened the double doors, and beheld his father, Re, in the glorious pyramidion-house, the Morning-Barque of Re, and the Evening-Barque of Atum. He closed double doors, applied the clay, and sealed (them) with the king's own seal. He charged the priests: "I have proved the seal; no other shall enter therein, of all the kings who shall arise." They threw themselves upon their bellies before his majesty, saying: "To abide, to endure, without perishing, O Horus, beloved of Heliopolis."

He came and entered into the house of Atum, following the image of his father, Atum-Khepri, the Great, of Heliopolis.

King Osorkon came to see the beauty of his majesty.

When the land brightened, very early in the morning, his majesty proceeded to the harbor, and the [best] of his ships crossed over to the harbor of the nome of Athribis. The camp of his majesty was set up on the south of Keheni. on the east of the nome of Athribis.

Then came those kings and princes of the Northland, all the chiefs who wore the feather, every vizier, all chiefs, and every king's confidant, from the west, from the east, and from the islands in the midst, to see the beauty of his majesty.

The hereditary prince, Pediese, threw himself upon his belly before his majesty, and said: "Come to Athribis, that thou mayest see Khentikhet, that thou mayest worship Khuyet, that thou mayest offer an oblation to Horus in his house, consisting of: bulls, calves, and fowl; and that thou mayest enter in my house. My treasury is open to thee, to [...] thyself with my paternal possessions. I will give to thee gold, as much as thou desirest; malachite shall be heaped up before thee; many horses of the best of the stable, and the first of the stall."

His majesty proceeded to the house of Harkhentikhet, and there were offered bulls, calves, and fowl to his father, Harkhentikhet, lord of Kemwer. His majesty went to the house of the hereditary prince, Pediese; he presented to him silver, gold, lapis lazuli, and malachite, a great heap with fine linen; myrrh and ointment in jars; horses, both stallions and mares, of all the best of his stable.

He purified himself by a divine oath, before these kings and great chiefs of the Northland (saying): "Every one of them, if he conceals his horses and hides his obligation shall die the death of his father. So be it to me, till ye bear witness of the servant there, in all that ye know of me; say ye, (whether) I have concealed (aught) from his majesty, of all the possessions of my father's house: [of] gold, silver; of costly stone; of all kinds of vessels, [....]; of golden bracelets, of necklaces, and collars wrought with costly stones; amulets for every limb, chaplets for the head, rings for the ears: all the adornments of a king; all the vessels of the king's purification, in gold and .... all costly stones. All these I have presented in the (royal) presence: garments of royal linen by thousands of all the best of my house, wherewith I knew thou wouldst be pleased. Go to the stable that thou mayest choose as thou desirest, of all the horses that thou willst." Then his majesty did so.

Said these kings and princes to his majesty: "Dismiss us to our cities, that we may open our treasuries, that we may choose as much as thy heart desires, that we may bring to the the best of our stables, the first of our horses." Then his majesty did so.

List of names belonging thereto:

King Osorkon of Bubastis, the district of Ranofer

King Yewepet in Tentremu and Tayan

The prince Zeamonefonekh in "The Granary of Re," of Per-Benebded

His eldest son, commander of the army, in Per-Thutuprehui, Enekhor.

The prince Akenesh in Sebennytos in Per-heby and in Samhudet

The prince, chief of Me, Pethenef, in Per-Soped and in "Granary of Memphis"

The prince, chief of Me, Pemou, in Per-Osiris, lord of Ded

The prince, chief of Me, Nesnekedy in the nome of Hesebka

The prince, chief of Me, Nekhtharneshenu in Per-Gerer.

The chief of Me, Pentewere.

The chief of Me, Pentibekhenet.

The prophet of Horus, lord of Letopolis, Pediharsomtous

The prince, Hurabes in the house of Sekhmet, mistress of Sais, and the house of Sekhmet, mistress of Rehesu.

The prince Zedkhiyu in Khentnofer

The prince Pebes in Khereha in Per-Hapi

Bearing all their good tribute: gold, silver, ...., ....., couches laid with fine linen, myrrh in jars, .... .... .... ...., as goodly dues; horses of ..............

Many days after] this, came one to say to his majesty: "The .... .... army .... .... .... .... his wall [for fear] of thee; he has set fire to [his] treasury [and to the ships] upon the river. He has garrisoned Mesed with soldiers and .... .... .... Then his majesty caused his warriors to go and see what had happened there, among the force of the hereditary prince, Pediese. One came to report to his majesty, saying: "We have slain every man whom we found there." His majesty gave it as a reward to the hereditary prince, Pediese.

Then the chief of Me, Tefnakhte, heard of it and caused a messenger to come to the place where his majesty was, with flattery, saying: "Be thou appeased! I have not beheld thy face for shame; I cannot stand before thy flame, I tremble at thy might. Lo, thou art Nubti, presiding over the Southland, Montu, the Bull of mighty arm. To whatsoever city thou hast turned thy face, thou hast not found the servant there, until I reached the islands of the sea, trembling before thy might, and saying: 'His flame is hostile to me.' Is not the heart of they majesty appeased, with these things that thou hast done to me? For I am verily a wretched man. Thou shouldst not smite me according to the measure of the crime; weighing with the balances, knowing with the kidet-weights. Thou increasest it to me threefold; leave the seed that thou mayest [spare] it in [time]; do not hew down the grove to its [root]. By thy ka, the terror of thee is in my body, and the fear of thee in my bones. I have not sat in the beer-hall, nor has the harp been played for me; but I have eaten bread in hunger, and I have drunk water in thirst, since that day when thou heardest my name. [Disease] is in my bones, my head is bare, my clothing is rags, till Neit is appeased toward me. Long is the course which thou hast brought to me; [thy face is against me .... the year has undone me]. Cleanse (thy) servant of his fault, let my possessions be received into the Treasury, of gold and every costly stone, and the best of the horses, (even) [payment for] everything. Send to me a messenger quickly, that he may expel fear from my heart. Let me go forth before him to the temple, that I may cleanse myself with a divine oath.

His majesty dispatched the chief ritual priest, Pediamenest-towe, and the commander of the army, Purme. He presented him with silver and gold, clothing , and every splendid, costly stone. He went forth to the temple, he worshiped the god, he cleansed himself with a divine oath, saying: "I will not transgress the command of the king, I will not overstep that which the king saith. I will not do a hostile act against a prince without thy knowledge. I will do according to that which the king says, and I will not transgress that which he has commanded. Then his majesty was satisfied therewith.

One came to say to his majesty: "The temple of Sebek, they have opened its stronghold, Metenu throws himself upon its belly, there is not a nome closed against his majesty of the nomes of the South and North; the west, the east, and the islands in the midst are upon their bellies in fear of him, causing that their possessions be presented at the palace where his majesty is, like subjects of the palace."

When the land brightened, very early in the morning these two rulers of the South and two rulers of the North, with serpent crests, came to sniff the ground before the fame of his majesty, while, as for these kings and princes of the Northland who came to behold the beauty of his majesty, their legs were as the legs of women. They entered not into the king's house, because they were unclean and eaters of fish; which is an abomination for the palace. Lo, King Namlot, he entered into the king's house, because he was pure, and he ate not fish. There stood three upon their feet, (but only) one entered the king's house.

Then the ships were laden with silver, gold, copper, clothing, and everything of the Northland, every product of Syria, and all sweet woods of God's Land. His majesty sailed up-stream, with glad heart, the shores on his either side were jubilating. West and east, they seized the [....], jubilating in the presence of his majesty; singing and jubilating as they said: "O mighty, mighty Ruler, Piankhi, O mighty Ruler, thou comest having gained the dominion of the Northland. Thou makest bulls into women. Happy the heart of the mother who bore thee, and the man who begat thee. Those who are in the valley give to her praise, the cow that hath borne a bull, Thou art unto eternity, thy might endureth, O Ruler, beloved of Thebes."

From: The Piankhi Stela

James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt. (Chicago: 1906), Part IV ?? 816 ff

4. The Shabako Stone

rom Memphis, Egypt

25th Dynasty, around 700 BC

Copy of a 'worm-eaten' papyrus

During the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Dynasties (about 747-525 BC) the Egyptians often used models and styles from earlier periods to enhance their arts and literature. Texts were given an air of authority by the suggestion that they were copied from an earlier source. According to this text, King Shabako (about 716-702 BC) inspected the Temple of Ptah and was horrified to discover that a papyrus scroll was being devoured by worms. He immediately ordered that the remaining undamaged text be incised in stone. The compiler of the text has reproduced the layout of early documents and introduced a number of archaisms, giving the piece an air of antiquity. However, the text is clearly much later than it claims. The slab was later re-used as a millstone, damaging the hieroglyphs.

The text on the stone, sometimes called the Memphite theology, places Ptah, the principal god of Memphis, and the patron deity of craftsmen, at the centre of existence. It even places him as a creator god, describing how he brings the world into being by giving names, thereby dividing land from water, light from darkness, heaven from earth etc.

There was no one single creation myth in ancient Egypt. The most widespread was that of creation by the sun god Atum, but versions often developed for each local deity, and a whole host of temples would consider themselves as the place where creation began. Shabako was a king of the expansionist Nubian dynasty, whose capital was in the Sudan. His intention may have been to secure the allegiance of the priesthood of Memphis, an influential section of the recently conquered Egyptian populace, by giving new prestige to the city's patron deity.

M. Jones (ed.), Fake?: the art of deception, exh. cat. (London, The British Museum Press, 1990)

S. Quirke, Ancient Egyptian religion (London, The British Museum Press, 1992)

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian literature: a, 3 vols. (University of California Press, 1973-1980)

5. The Shabaka Stone

The living Horus; Who prospers the Two Lands; the Two Ladies: Who prospers the Two Lands; the Golden Horus: Who prospers the Two Lands; King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Neferkare; the Son of Re: Sha[baka], beloved of Ptah-South-of-his-Wall, who lives like Re forever.

This writing was copied out anew by his majesty in the house of his father Ptah-South-of-his-Wall, for his majesty found it to be a work of the ancestors which was worm-eaten, so that it could not be understood from the beginning to end. His majesty copied it anew so that it became better than it had been before, in order that his name might endure and his monument last in the House of his father Ptah-South-of-his-Wall throughout eternity, as a work done by the son of Re [Shabaka] for his father Ptah-Tatenen, so that he might live forever.

King of Upper and Lower Egypt] is this Ptah, who is called the great name: [Ta-te]nen [South-of-his-Wall, Lord of eternity] ///. /// [the joiner] of Upper and Lower Egypt is he, this uniter who arose as king of Upper Egypt and arose as king of Lower Egypt. /// /// "self-begotten," so says Atum: "who created the Nine Gods."

Geb, lord of the gods, commanded] that the Nine Gods gather to him. He judged between Horus and Seth; he ended their quarrel. He made Seth the king of Upper Egypt in the land of Upper Egypt, up to the place in which he was born, which is Su. And Geb made Horus King of Lower Egypt in the land of Lower Egypt, up to the place in which his father was drowned which is "Division-of-the-Two-Lands." Thus Horus stood over one region, and Seth stood over one region. They made peace over the Two Lands at Ayan. That was the division of the Two Lands.

Geb's words to Seth: "Go to the place in which you were born."

Seth: Upper Egypt.

Geb's words to Horus: "Go to the place in which your father was drowned."

Horus: Lower Egypt.

Geb's words to Horus and Seth: "I have separated you."

Lower and Upper Egypt.

Then it seemed wrong to Geb that the portion of Horus was like the portion of Seth. So Geb gave Horus his inheritance, for he is the son of his firstborn son.

Geb's words to the Nine Gods: "I have appointed Horus, the firstborn."

Geb's words to the Nine Gods: "Him alone, Horus, the inheritance."

Geb's words to the Nine Gods: "To his heir, Horus, my inheritance."

Geb's words to the Nine Gods: "To the son of my son, Horus, the Jackal of Upper Egypt /// Geb's words to the Nine Gods: "The firstborn, Horus, the Opener-of-the-ways."

Geb's words to the Nine Gods: "The son who was born /// Horus, on the Birthday of the Opener-of-the-ways."

Then Horus stood over the land. He is the uniter of this land, proclaimed in the great name: Ta-tenen, South-of-his-Wall, Lord of Eternity. Then sprouted the two Great Magicians upon his head. He is Horus who arose as king of Upper and Lower Egypt, who united the Two Lands in the Nome of the Wall, the place in which the Two Lands were united.

Reed and papyrus were placed on the double door of the House of Ptah. That means Horus and Seth, pacified and united. They fraternized so as to cease quarrelling in whatever place they might be, being united in the House of Ptah, the "Balance of the Two Lands" in which Upper and Lower Egypt had been weighed.

This is the land ////// the burial of Osiris in the House of Sokar. ////// Isis and Nephthys without delay, for Osiris had drowned in his water. Isis [and Nephthys] looked out, [beheld him and attended to him]. Horus speaks to Isis and Nephthys: "Hurry, grasp him ///."

Isis and Nephthys speak to Osiris: "We come, we take you ///."

They heeded in time] and brought him to [land. He entered the hidden portals in the glory of the lords of eternity]. //////. [Thus Osiris came into] the earth at the royal fortress, to the north of [the land to which he had come. And his son Horus arose as king of Upper Egypt, arose as king of Lower Egypt, in the embrace of his father Osiris and of the gods in front of him and behind him.]

There was built the royal fortress [at the command of Geb ///]. Geb speaks to Thoth: ////// Geb speaks to Thoth: //////. //////. [Geb] speaks to Isis: ////// Isis causes Horus and Seth to come. Isis speaks to Horus and Seth: "[Come] /////////."

Isis speaks to Horus and Seth: "Make peace //////."

Isis speaks to Horus and Seth: "Life will be pleasant for you when //////."

Isis speaks to Horus and Seth: "It is he who dries your tears //////."

The Gods who came into being in Ptah:

Ptah-on-the-great-throne //////.

Ptah-Nun, the father who [made] Atum.

Ptah-Naunet, the mother who bore Atum.

Ptah-the-Great is heart and tongue of the Nine [Gods].

Ptah] ///////// who bore the gods.

Ptah] ///////// who bore the gods.

Ptah] /////////.

Ptah] ///////// Nefertem at the nose of Re every day.

There took shape in the heart, there took shape on the tongue the form of Atum. For the very great one is Ptah, who gave [life] to all the gods and their kas through this heart and through this tongue, in which Horus had taken shape as Ptah, in which Thoth had taken shape as Ptah.

Thus heart and tongue rule over all the limbs in accordance with the teaching that it (the heart, or: he, Ptah) is in every body and it (the tongue, or: he Ptah) is in every mouth of all gods, all men, all cattle, all creeping things, whatever lives, thinking whatever it (or:he) wishes and commanding whatever it (or:he) wishes.

His (Ptah's) Ennead is before him as teeth and lips. They are the semen and the hands of Atum. For the Ennead of Atum came into being through his semen and his fingers. But the Ennead is the teeth and the lips in this mouth which pronounced the name of every thing, from which Shu and Tefnut came forth, and which gave birth to the Ennead.

Sight, hearing, breathing - they report to the heart, and it makes every understanding come forth. As to the tongue, it repeats what the heart has devised. Thus all the gods were born and his Ennead was completed. For every word of the god came about through what the heart devised and the tongue commanded.

Thus all the faculties were made and all the qualities determined, they that make all foods and all provisions, through this word, to him who does what is loved, to him who does what is hated. Thus life is given to the peaceful and death is given to the criminal. Thus all labor, all crafts are made, the action of the hands, the motion of the legs, the movements of all the limbs, according to this command which is devised by the heart and comes forth on the tongue and creates the performance of every thing.

Thus it is said of Ptah: "He who made all and created the gods."

And he is Ta-tenen, who gave birth to the gods, and from whom everything came forth, foods, provisions, divine offerings, all good things. Thus is recognized and understood that he is the mightiest of the gods. Thus Ptah was satisfied after he had made all things and all divine words.

He gave birth to the gods,

He made the towns,

He established the nomes,

He placed the gods in their shrines,

He settled their offerings,

He established their shrines,

He made their bodies according to their wishes.

Thus the gods entered into their bodies,

Of every wood, every stone, every clay,

Every thing that grows upon him

In which they came to be.

Thus were gathered to him all the gods and their kas,

Content, united with the Lord of the Two Lands.

The Great Throne that gives joy to the heart of the gods in the House of Ptah is the granary of Ta-tenen, the mistress of all life, through which the sustenance of the Two Lands is provided, owing to the fact that Osiris was drowned in his water. Isis and Nephthys looked out, beheld him, and attended to him. Horus quickly commanded Isis and Nephthys to grasp Osiris and prevent his drowning (i.e., submerging). They heeded in time and brought him to land. He entered the hidden portals in the glory of the lords of eternity, in the steps of him who rises in the horizon, on the ways of Re the Great Throne. He entered the palace and joined the gods of Ta-tenen Ptah, lord of years.

Thus Osiris came into the earth at the Royal Fortress, to the north of the land to which he had come. His son Horus arose as king of Upper Egypt, arose as king of Lower Egypt, in the embrace of his father Osiris and of the gods in front of him and behind him.


M. Lichtheim: Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol.1, pp.51-55