Kush (Ethiopia), Egypt and Nubia from Tanwetamani to Psamtek II. The Destruction of Napata. Part X

Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis
In an earlier article titled "Egypt, Ethiopia - Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist Fallacy of Ethiopianism, and Nubia" (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/egypt-ethiopia-sudan-abyssinia-the-freemasonic-orientalist-fallacy-of-ethiopianism-and-nubia.html), I focused on the colonially masterminded project against Eastern Africa, which involved the projection of fake identity on both, the Arabic speaking populations of Central Sudan, and the Semitic Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians. This was effectuated by means of two fake ideologies, Pan-Arabism and Ethiopianism.

Pan-Arabism was the fake doctrine fabricated by the colonial Orientalist academia in order to project the fake Arab identity onto the former.

Ethiopianism was the fake doctrine fabricated by the colonial Orientalist academia in order to project the fake Ethiopian identity onto the latter.

I underscored that the evil, colonial diplomacy and academia, in order to better implement Pan-Arabism in Sudan and effectively disorient the Arabic-speaking Sudanese from the search of their true Kushitic ? Ethiopian identity and historical heritage, machinated the renaming of the Kushitic ? Ethiopian Antiquity, monuments, History, and culture as "Nubian". This is a misnomer.

To clarify that the non-Egyptian antiquities of the Egyptian South and the Sudanese North cannot be called "Nubian", I initiated a series of articles, presenting the historical interaction among the Hamitic ? Kushitic Egyptians, the Kushitic Ethiopians (ancestors to today´s Arabic-speaking Sudanese, Oromos, Sidamas, and other Eastern African Kushites), and the Medjay ? Nubians, who are ancestors to the modern Nubians. The latter may now be the exclusive inhabitants of a vast part of the territory of Ancient Kush (Ethiopia), namely from the South of Aswan to Wadi Halfa and further to Debba, but in the Antiquity, they were a minority in the said territory (and in the rest of Egypt); furthermore, the Ancient Nubians never formed a state of their own in the pre-Christian times.

Consequently, the Nubians cannot be considered as the only or the primary heir to either the Egyptian or the Kushitic / Ethiopian Antiquity, History, monuments, and Heritage. The term "Nubian" cannot be given to the kings of Kerma, Napata and Meroe ? the three most important capitals of Pre-Christian Kush / Ethiopia ? because these kings were not Nubians but Kushites / Ethiopians; speaking at both, the ethnic and the linguistic levels, they were as different as the Ancient Greeks from the Ancient Babylonians.

An Outline of the Earlier Parts

To extensively analyze the subject, I expanded in nine earlier articles, covering

1) the early periods of Prehistory and History (A-Group, C-Group, Kerma kingdom) of Ancient Kush ? Ethiopia (Sudan),

2) the Anti-Egyptian alliance between the Kushitic / Ethiopian kingdom of Kerma and the Asiatic invaders of Egypt, the notorious Hyksos,

3) the liberation of Egypt from the Hyksos rulers,

4) the cooperation of the Egyptian throne with the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse opposing the Kerma rulers in view of the eradication of the latter,

5) the presence of the Kushite / Ethiopian noblesse in the pharaonic court, notably the high priestess Ahmose Nefertari, a Kushite / Ethiopian noble lady and Queen Mother of the Pharaoh Amenhotep I,

6) the eradication of "evil" kingdom of Kerma by Thutmose I, and the annexation of the entire Kas (Kush / Ethiopia) by Egypt,

7) the rise and the fall of the Egyptian New Kingdom,

8) the permanent clash of the monotheistic and polytheistic priesthoods of Amun of Thebes during the times of New Kingdom,

9) the rise and the fall (14th century BCE) of the religious ? spiritual revolution of Akhenaten of Egypt, who preached the monotheistic system (Atonism ? the system evolving around Aton, the Only God) that pre-modeled the Kushitic / Ethiopian monotheism and the later monotheistic Kushitic religions,

10) the rift caused by Atonism within the Egyptian society,

11) the division and decadence of Egypt into several countries and dynasties after the victory of Ramesses III over the Sea Peoples,

12) the prevalence of the polytheistic Amun Theban priesthood throughout Upper Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia that remained united under the Thebes-based Amun high priests for no less than three centuries after Egypt´s split,

13) the shift of power from Thebes to Napata, whereby a local, Kushitic / Ethiopian dynasty rose to defend not only Kush / Ethiopia but also Thebes, against the monotheistic priesthood of Heliopolis, the Delta Kings of Lower Egypt, and their Libyan allies,

14) the beginning of the Napatan dynasty of Kush / Ethiopia, and the reigns of Alara and Kashta, the early Napatan rulers, who attributed great importance to their interconnection and interaction with the polytheistic Amun Theban priesthood up to the point of consecrating female relatives (like Amenardis (Imen-iirdisi), the Divine (female) Adorer of Amun, and Divine Wife of Amun) to the Theban clergy.

15) the clash between the Kushite Piankhi and the Heliopolitan priesthood backed by the Berbers for prevalence in Lower Egypt,

16) the introduction of a new mortuary architectural style in Kush / Ethiopia with the erection of small, steep pyramids over the Kushitic pharaohs´ tombs in the early Napatan necropolis (late 8th century BCE),

17) the conquest of the Egyptian North by Shabaka, and the search for the Authentic Hamitic ? Kushitic Spirituality that was undertaken by Piankhi´s younger brother,

18) the alliance between Shabaka´s successor Shebitqu with Hezekiah of Judah and the Palestinians against the great monotheist Emperor Sennacherib of Assyria, the then world´s sole superpower, the crushing defeat of all the allies at the battle of Eltekeh, and the subsequent expedition of the Assyrian army up to the gates of Egypt, i.e. Pelusium (Per Amun, i.e. the House of Amun, in Ancient Egyptian, nearby today´s Port Said),

19) the successive attacks of the Assyrian Emperor Assarhaddon, the Assyrian invasion of Memphis, and occupation of Lower Egypt, and the subsequent limitation of the Kushitic / Ethiopian control in Upper Egypt, and

20) the two consecutive invasions of Egypt by Assurbanipal, the destruction of Thebes, Taharqa´s last years, and Tanwetamani´s defeat and expulsion from Egypt which had become province of the Assyrian Empire.

Here are the titles of, and the links to, the first nine parts of the series:

"The Common Origins of Egypt, and Ethiopia ? Sudan. Oromos, Arabic Speaking Sudanese, Nubians. I" (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-common-origins-of-egypt-and-ethiopia-sudan-oromos-arabic-speaking-sudanese-nubians-i.html)

"Hamitic-Kushitic Origins of Egypt and Ethiopia / Sudan. Oromos, Arabic Speaking Sudanese, Nubians II" (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/hamitic-kushitic-origins-of-egypt-and-ethiopia-sudan-oromos-arabic-speaking-sudanese-nubians-ii.html),

"Egyptian Rule over Kush-Ethiopia, and Ahmose Nefertari, Foremother of Oromos and Sudanese. Part III" (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/egyptian-rule-over-kush-ethiopia-and-ahmose-nefertari-foremother-of-oromos-and-sudanese-part-iii.html)

"Egypt, Akhenaten, Aton Monotheism: Origins of Oromos´ and Sidamas´ Kushitic / Ethiopian Religions" (http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/147078)

"Napata: Egypt Ruled by the Forefathers of Arabic-speaking Sudanese and Oromos (not Amharas). Part V" (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/napata-egypt-ruled-by-the-forefathers-of-arabic-speaking-sudanese-and-oromos-not-amharas-part-v.html)

"From Piankhi to Shabaka: Ancestors to Egyptians, Arabic-speaking Sudanese, Oromos, Sidamas. Part VI" (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/from-piankhi-to-shabaka-ancestors-to-egyptians-arabic-speaking-sudanese-oromos-sidamas-part-vi.html)

"Sennacherib of Assyria Defeats Shebitqu of Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia, Jews, Palestinians Allies" (http://www.afroarticles.com/article-dashboard/Article/Sennacherib-of-Assyria-Defeats-Shebitqu-of-Egypt-and-Kush---Ethiopia--Jews---Palestinian-Allies/205543)

"Taharqa Routed by Assarhaddon, Memphis Sacked, Kush / Ethiopia Driven from Lower Egypt. Part VIII" (http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/148167)

"Taharqa, Egypt, Ethiopia (Ancient Sudan), Nubians, Assyria and Assurbanipal, Emperor of the Universe"


In the present, tenth article of the series, I will focus on developments that took place in the land inhabited by Nubians today and by Kushites (Ethiopians) in the Antiquity, after the end of Tanwetamani´s reign and till the first destruction of Napata, the Ancient Kushitic / Ethiopian capital, by Psamtek (Psammetichus) II.

From Tanwetamani to Aspelta

Following Tanwetamani´s flee to the south, many Kushites residing in Upper Egypt (up to the first cataract) and the adjacent parts of Kush / Ethiopia (mainly the area between the first and the second cataracts) left to relocate to the south, in safer parts of Kush whereby they would be out of reach for the Assyrian army and garrisons left at Thebes and Syene (Aswan), and for Psamtek´s Berber soldiers who, along with the Assyrians, ensured civil order throughout Egypt.

This massive return to the central parts of the Kushitic / Ethiopian fatherland involved noble families, priests, theologians, scholars, architects and artists, high rank officers and merchants; in brief, the part of the Kushitic / Ethiopian ruling class that had moved to Upper Egypt in order to consolidate the bi-cephalous, Napatan and Theban administration left. Along with them, Kushitic populations, who were indigenous in the northernmost part of Kush, left because of the Assyrian threat. The retreat to the religious capital Kawa (ca. 800 km south of the traditional Egyptian border) and Napata (another 250 km further on) demonstrated the geo-strategic advantage of the country and became a time honoured tradition in Kushitic / Ethiopian History.

In fact, Kush / Ethiopia and the Yemenite kingdoms were at the confines of the Ancient Oriental world, and their distance from the area between Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Egypt constituted an important element of their natural defense. This situation would soon take an end with the rise of great military forces that tried to imitate the original Sargonid Assyrian example of universalistic empire, notably the Nabonid Babylonians and the Achaemenid Iranians.

This Kushitic / Ethiopian withdrawal from the area between the first and the second cataracts caused a change in the indigenous population composition; the Nubians constituted a proportionally greater part of the indigenous population which included altogether Egyptians, Kushites / Ethiopians, Nubians, and nomadic Kushitic and Nilo-Saharan populations.


Tanwetamani reigned over Kush / Ethiopia for some years after he fled Thebes. His successor, Atlanersa (653 ? 640 BCE) was son of Taharqa. Atlanersa´s work was mostly limited in architectural restoration and reorganization of his country´s resources. We have found monuments bearing inscriptions with his typically Egyptian pharaonic name (a total of five names) in the central parts of his kingdom from Kawa (Dunqulah) to Napata (Karima).

In the holy rock of Amun of Napata (a 150 m high hill at a distance of ca. 500 m from Nile´s right bank), he had a small temple hewn; however, the temple was decorated by his successor. At the Amun temple of Kawa, he had an obelisk erected. His reign´s most impressive remain is a stand for the Sacred Bark of Amun of Napata which was a sample of the boat used in fluvial religious ceremonies, particularly the Opet festival, which was commonly held in Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia.

Atlanersa was buried in pyramid Nu 20 at Nuri. His Kushitic name is totally unrelated to the Semitic ? Phoenician ? Carthaginian origin´s name Atlas; every connection of Qore (Pharaoh in Kushitic language) Atlanersa with the mythical people of Atlanteans is therefore absolutely irrelevant.


Atlanersa´s son and successor, Senkamanisken (ca. 640 ? 620 BCE) continued his father´s work at the critical period of Assurbanipal´s last years. During this period, Psamtek (Psammetichus) I gradually acquired full independence from the Assyrian Empire which, after Assurbanipal´s reign ended (625 BCE), quickly collapsed (614 ? 609 BCE) as few Assyrians were left at Nineveh. The development rekindled the Berber ? Kushitic rivalry; as the Berber (traditionally called "Libyan" due to Manetho´s terminology) Pharaohs of Egypt lost their formidable master and supporter, namely the Emperor of Nineveh, the balance between Sais (the Berber dynasty´s capital in the Delta area) and Napata became more nuanced and uncertain. This situation would certainly trigger a war as it did a few decades later.

Few monuments have been left from Senkamanisken´s reign, and certainly the most important findings are those excavated at Meroe (today´s Bagrawiyah, at ca. 550 km far from his capital, Napata) because they demonstrate that the later Kushitic / Ethiopian capital was already, as early as the last decades of the 7th century BCE, an important city.

Senkamanisken was buried in pyramid Nu 3 at Nuri. Approximately 1300 ushabti statuettes have been unearthed in his tomb, which proves the extent of the adoption of Egyptian rituals in Kush / Ethiopia. His two sons succeeded him on the Napatan throne. Some of Senkamanisken´s statues at Napata were found buried, and this suggests that they were deliberately hidden in order to remain safe and intact at the times of the Egyptian / Berber attack under Psamtek II (592 BCE).


Anlamani (ca. 620 ? 600 BCE) was Senkamanisken´s elder son and first successor. His period was characterized by relative calmness in the North, and this was due to the fact that the collapse of Assyria triggered a great rivalry between Egypt and Babylonia, the great Mesopotamian rival to Assyria that had long been reduced to Assyrian province. The earlier, pro-Assyrian stance of the Berber dynasty of Egypt (Psamtek I and Nechao II) was enough reason for a clash, but in addition, the stakes were very high in Phoenicia, Judah and Palestine, the old Assyrian provinces that were now again independent and were located in-between Babylonia and Egypt. Annexation of the said territories would play a determinant role in the Babylonian ? Egyptian balance of power.

Anlamani had however to fight wars against the Kushitic Blemmyes, a tribe of the Western desert that turned out to be a momentary threat for Napata (the Blemmyes migrated to the Eastern desert at a later date, only to relocate to Sudan´s eastern coastlands and inland during the Islamic times, and be presently known as Bejas).

Anlamani had several temples built and steles erected. On them, we found Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions (still the only writing system of the Kushites) that shed light on his reign´s events. It seems that at a certain moment, and due to diplomatic contacts with the Anti-Berber part of the Theban priesthood, Anlamani traveled to Upper Egypt (probably at the time Nechao II was busy in Syria against the Babylonians) and venerated several temples.

Through the existing documentation, it appears that Anlamani´s reign and personality were highly characterized by a priestly ? religious aspect. His coronation ceremony took place at Kawa, the religious capital, not Napata; the ritual was attended by the Qore´s mother, queen Nasalsa, a hieratic figure. His travel to Egypt was mainly of religious character. His sisters were sistrum ? players, priestesses of Isis, i.e. the emblem of the monotheistic priesthood of Heliopolis, who however received very different attributes and characteristics by the Napatan polytheists. In fact, Isis in Egypt and Isis in Kush symbolized two different concepts at those days. Two granite statues of Anlamani have been unearthed in Napata, and his pyramid (Nu 6 at Nuri) featured an impressive chamber, a sarcophagus, and funerary inscriptions of great value.


Aspelta (ca. 600 ? 565 BCE) represents a highly enigmatic Kushite / Ethiopian Qore (king). In striking contrast with royal rules and procedures, he was literarily elected as Qore; this is narrated in the inscription of the so-called Election Stela. It appears that he did not have the ideological ? religious credentials demanded, and a part of the Napatan priesthood opposed him. The chief army officers acted therefore on behalf of these priests, in a way to put obstacles to what would have seemed as Aspelta´s normal succession to his elder brother. A state committee was consequently convoked, and the meeting ended with the nomination of a list of possible successors. The other candidates are referred to as royal brothers but we have every reason to doubt. The effort was actually a plot machinated to prevent Aspelta from rising on the throne. Aspelta was saved only due to the Oracle of Amun of Napata, which means that the key position among the Kushite / Ethiopian priests was held by a supporter of Aspelta, probably representing the otherwise monotheistic line of the Kushite / Ethiopian clergy (a minority).

According to the text, Amun of Napata proclaimed:

He [Aspelta] is your king. . . His father is my son, the son of the Sun. . . the holy . . . his mother is the king's sister and king's mother, Mistress of Kush, daughter of the Sun, Nasalsa, living forever.

Only then, Aspelta was officially established, and he had to face immediate opposition from the opposite, polytheistic part of the Napatan clergy. His mother, queen Nasalsa, seems also to have sided with him, and consequently, she is highly revered in other monuments dating back to Aspelta´s reign. In one inscription, she is described as descendent from Divine Wife of Amun of Thebes, Amenirdis II. This would imply that the Kushite high priestess had returned to Napata, and then ceased being a high priestess, got married, and gave birth to Kushite princes and princesses.

A few years after his difficult rise, Aspelta had some priests arrested and killed, and this gives an impression of revenge that took some time to materialize. However, the clash between predominantly monotheistic Qore (kings) and basically polytheistic priests typified several centuries of Meroitic History, and heralded developments that ended up with the migration of the monotheistic populations to the South after Meroe´s destruction by Ezana of Axum (ca. 370 CE). This explains also why the religious systems of modern Kushitic nations (Oromos, Sidamas and others who originate from the Ancient Kushites) are essentially monotheistic.

In 592 BCE, Aspelta was attacked by a huge army gathered by Psamtek II (a great number of Aramaean, Phoenician, Jewish, Carian and Greek mercenaries accompanied the Egyptian army). He failed to defend his capital, and Napata was destroyed. Coming from Sais, his own capital, Psamtek II had crossed a distance of no less than 2150 km; his Carian and Greek mercenaries left graffiti on the huge statues of Ramses II that are located in front of the great pharaoh´s monumental temple at Abu Simbel. As the graffiti are inscribed on the knees of the statues which are at the height of more than 10 meters, we can safely conclude that the gigantic proportions´ temple had already been immersed in the sand, and therefore was almost the same as seen by the early 19th century European travelers.

Aspelta escaped to the south and was probably the first Kushite / Ethiopian to make of Meroe his royal residence. However, the Egyptians and their mercenaries returned to Egypt soon, and most of Kush / Ethiopia was again under control of Aspelta who was buried at Nuri (pyramid 8).

Approximately 70 years later, another similar event took place and this convinced Aspelta´s successors to permanently move to Meroe (today´s Bagrawiyah). By that time, unrelated to the Kushites / Ethiopians, the ancestors of today´s Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians were still in Yemen whereby local epigraphic evidence marked their presence (Habashat) as a minor, marginal and insignificant tribe. That´s why all modern pseudo-historians of the uneducated and racist Amhara and Tigray elites deploy ridiculous efforts to usurp pieces of African History and credentials of great historicity from the past of the Oromos, the Sidamas, other Kushitic subjugated nations of Abyssinia, and the Arabic-speaking Sudanese who are also Kushitic of origin. The defense of their Ethiopian historicity and identity is therefore for all these targeted nations of primordial importance.

In a forthcoming article I will focus of the ultimate period of Napatan rule and the second destruction of Napata, by Kambudjiya (Cambyses) of Iran who invaded Egypt and Kush / Ethiopia in 525 BCE.

Further Readings:

1. The adoption stela of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I


"I am his son, first in the favor of the father of the gods, offering to the gods; whom he begat for himself, to satisfy his heart. I have given to him my daughter, to be Divine Consort, that she [may invoke protection for the king] more than those who were before her; that he may indeed be satisfied with her prayers, and that he may protect the land of him who gave her to him."

"Lo, I have now heard saying, a king's-daughter of Taharka, triumphant, is there whom he gave to his sister to be her 'Great Daughter' who is there as 'Divine Votress' (ntr-dwA.t). I am not one to expel an heir from his place, for I am a king who loves truth; my particular abomination is lying; (I am) a son protecting his father, taking the inheritance of Keb, uniting the two portions as a youth. Hence I give her to her, to be her 'Great Daughter' as her father (once) conveyed her to (his) sister."

"Then 5 they bowed to the ground, they gave thanks to the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Wahibre (Psamtik I), living forever; and they said: 'Abiding and enduring through eternity? Thy every command shall abide and endure. How beautiful is this which the god doeth for thee! How excellent is that which thy father doeth for thee! /////' 6 ////// He loves to remember thy ka, and he rejoices at the mention of thy name, O Horus, 'Great-of-Heart', King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Psamtik (I), living forever. He has done this as his monument for his father, Amon, lord of heaven, ruler of gods. He hath given his beloved eldest daughter, Nitocris (nt-jqr.t), whose 'beautiful name' is Shepnupet, to be Divine Consort, to play the sistrum before his (Amon's) beautiful face."

In the year 9, first month of the first season (first month), day 28, went forth his eldest daughter from the king's family apartments, clad in fine linen, and newly adorned with malachite. The attendants conducting her were legion in number, 8 and marshals cleared the path, for beginning the goodly way to the harbor, to turn upstream for Thebes. The vessels bearing her were very numerous, the crews were mighty men, and they were deeply laden [to the decks] with every good thing of the king's-palace. 9 The commander thereof was the sole companion, nomarch of Heracleopolis, commander in chief of the army, chief of the harbor, Somtous-Tefnakhte. Messengers sailed to the South, to make splendid provision before her. Sail was set [/// /// /// /// /// (?)]. b10 The great men took their weapons, and every noble [had (?)] his provision, supplied with every good thing: bread, beer, oxen, geese, [/// (?)], dates, herbs, and every good thing. One transferred (her) to his neighbor, until she reached Thebes.

11 In the year 9, second month of the first season (second month), day 14, they arrived at the city of the gods, Thebes. As she advanced, she found (all) Thebes, men and women alike, standing, rejoicing at her approach, surrounding her with great offerings, a multitude in number. Then they said: "The daughter of the King of Upper Egypt, Nitocris, comes to the house of Amon, that he may receive her and be satisfied with her. The daughter of the King of Lower Egypt, Shepnupet, comes to Karnak, that the gods therein may honor her. Every monument of 13 the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Psamtik (I), abides and endures forever and ever. Amon, lord of heaven, king of gods, hath received what his son, Horus, 'Great-of-Heart,' living forever and ever, made for him. Amon, ruler of gods, hath praised that which his son, Favorite of the Two Goddesses, Nebe (nba), living forever and ever, made for him. //////.14 The reward therefore is with Amon, and with Montu, even a million years of life, a million years of stability, a million years of satisfaction. All health and joy of heart are with them for their beloved son, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, Wahibre, 15 Son of Re, Psamtik (I), living forever and ever. //////."

Now, afterward when she came to the Divine Votress, Shepnupet, 16 she saw her, was satisfied with her, and loved her beyond everything. She conveyed to her the fortune (jmj-pr) which her father and her mother had conveyed to her and to her 'Great Daughter', Amenardis, king's-daughter of King ///, triumphant. It was put into writing concerning them, saying: "We have given to thee all our property in field and in town. Thou abidest upon our throne, abiding 17 and enduring forever and ever."

The witnesses concerning them were the prophets, the priests and all the adherents of the temple.

List of all the property given to her [by [them (?)]] in the towns and nomes of the South and North

That which his (sic!) majesty gave to her in seven nomes of the Southland:

1. In the district of Heracleopolis, the nome 18 called Yuna (jwnA), which is in the district thereof lands, 300 stat

2. In the district of Oxyrhyncus, the estate of Putowe (pw-tAwy), which is in the district thereof lands, 300 stat

3. In the district of Sep, the estate of Kewkew (kAw-kAw), which is in the district thereof 19 lands, [300 (?)] stat

4. In the district of the Hare nome, (Hermopolis), the estates of Nesumin, which are in the district thereof 600 stat

5. In the district of Aphroditopolis, (the town of) Kay (qAj), which is in the district thereof 300 stat

6. In the district of [/// (?)], the estate of Harsiese, which is in the district thereof

20 200 stat

All this added together

lands, 1,800 stat

together with all the income thereof from field and town; with their arid lands, and their canals.

Bread and beer given to the temple of Amon for her:

That which the fourth prophet of Amon, prince of 21 the city (Thebes), governor of the whole South, Mentemhet, gives to her:


Bread 200 deben

Wine5 hin

Cakes (?)]1

Vegetables1 bundle (Htp)


Oxen 3

Geese 5

That which his eldest son, chief of the prophets of Thebes, Nesuptah, gives to her:


Bread 100 deben

Wine2 hin

Vegetables1 bundle (Htp)


22 [Cakes (?)] (Sa)15

Beer10 jars (hbn)

Lands in the region (qaH.t) of Wawat 100 stat

That which the wife of the fourth prophet of Amon, Mentemhet (named) Uzarenes (wDA-rns), gives to her:


Bread 100 deben

That which the High Priest of Amon, Harkheb (Hr-xb), gives to her:


Bread 100 deben

Wine2 hin


Cakes (?)] (Sa)10

23 Beer5 jars (hbn)

Vegetables10 bundles (Htp)

That which the third prophet of Amon, Pediamennebnesttowe, gives to her:


Bread 100 deben

Wine2 hin


Beer5 jars (hbn)

Cakes (?)] (Sa)10

Vegetables10 bundles (Htp)

Combined total:

google_protectAndRun("ads_core.google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad);

Bread 600 deben

Wine 11 hin

Cakes (?)] (Sa)2½

Vegetables 2 2/3 bundles (Htp)


Oxen 3

Geese 5

Beer 20 jars

Lands 100 stat

That which his majesty gives to her in the nome of Heliopolis in the temple of Atum, of the divine offerings (temple income), which his majesty founded:

Spelt 2 khar

after it has been offered in the (divine) presence daily, and the god has been satisfied therewith.

That which is given to her from the temples:

Sais Bread 200 deben

Buto 200

House of Hathor of the Malachite 100

Memphis (?)] (Pr-jnbw) 50

Kom el-Hisn 50

Per-Manu 50

The house (a.t) of Tharu 50

Tanis 100

House of Hathor 100

Bubastis 100

Athribis 200

Mesta (mS.tA) 50

Bista (bjAs.tA) 50

House of Harsaphes, lord of Heracleopolis 100

Per-Seped (Saft-el-Henneh) 100

Combined total Bread 1500 deben

That which was given to her in four nomes of the Northland:

1. 27In the district of Sais, the estates (pr) of the southern Bedwin, which are in the district thereof: lands 360 stat

2. In the district of Bista (byAs.t), the house (a.t) of Neferher (nfr-Hr), which is in the district thereof; lands 500 stat

3. In the district of Thebu (Tbw), 28 in the Barque of the Sycamore, which is in the district thereof 2[4]0 stat

4. In the middle district of Heliopolis, "The-Wall-of-Hori", son of Zedti (Ddtj), which is (also) "The-Wall-of-Psenmut", born of 29 Meretubekhet (mr.t-wbx.t), which is in the district thereof 200 (+x) stat

Total lands of four nomes 1,400 stat

together with all the income thereof, from field and town; with their arid lands and their 30 canals.

Combined total:

Bread 3,100 deben

Lands in eleven nomes 3,300 stat

Abiding, abiding, conveyed, conveyed, imperishable and ineffaceable, forever and ever, forever and ever!

In the district of ///[pep (?)], with all its people, all its lands, and all its possessions in field and town

J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, ?? 942ff.

2. The stela of Ankhenesneferibre


1 Year 1, third month of the third season, day 29, under the majesty of Horus: Menekhib (mnx-ib); Favorite of the Two Goddesses: Mighty of Arm; Golden Horus: Beautifying the Two Lands; King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Neferibre; Son of Re: 2 Psamtik II, given life. On this day the king's-daughter, Enekhnesneferibre, arrived at Thebes.

Her mother, the Divine Consort, Nitocris, who liveth, came forth 3 to behold her beauty, and they went together to the House (pr) of Amon. Then was conducted the [divine (?)] [image (?)] from [the House of] [Amon], to /// /// 4 [///] in order to make her titulary as follows:

"The Greatly Praised in [///], Flower in the Palace, [///] of the [///] of 5 Amon, High Priest of Amon, King's-Daughter Enchhnesneferibre. She shall be in the Presence of her Father, Amon-Re, Lord of Thebes, Presider over Karnak."

6 Year 7, first month of the first season, day 23, went forth this Good God, Lord of the Two Lands, Psamtik (II) to heaven. He joined the sun, the divine limbs mingling with him who made him {jr-sw).

Then was crowned 7 his son, in his place, (even) Horus; Wahib; Favorite of the Two Goddesses: Lord of Might; Golden Horus: Making Verdant the Two Lands; King of Upper and Lower Egypt; Apries (Haa-jb-ra); Son of Re: Wahibre (wAH-jb-ra) who liveth.

Year 4, fourth month of the third season, 8 day 4, of this king; went forth the Divine Votress {dwA.t-nTr), Nitocris, triumphant, to heaven. She joined the sun, the divine limbs mingling with him who made her. Her daughter, the High Priest, Enekhnesneferibre, 9 did for her all that is done for every excellent king.

Now, when twelve days had elapsed after these events, (in) the fourth month of the third season, day 15, went the king's-daughter, 10 the High Priest, Enekhnesneferibre, to the House of Amon-Re, king of gods; while the prophets, the divine fathers, the priests (wab), ritual priests and lay priests of the temple of Amon 11 were behind her, and the great companions were in front thereof. There were performed for her all the customary ceremonies of the induction of the Divine Votress (dwA.t-nTr) of Amon into the temple, by the divine scribe 12 and nine priests (wab) of this house (pr). She fastened on all the amulets and ornaments of the Divine Consort (Hm.t-nTr), and the Divine Votrcss {dwA.t-nTr) of Amon, crowned with the two plumes, the diadem of 13 her forehead, to be queen (Hn.t) of every circuit of the sun.

Her titulary was made as follows:

"Hereditary Princess, Great in Amiability, Great in Favor, Mistress of Loveliness, Sweet in Love, Queen (Hn.t} of all Women, Divine Consort, 14 Divine Votress, Heknefrumut (HqA.t nfr.w mw.t), Divine Hand, Enekhnesneferibre, who liveth, King's-Daughter of the Lord of the Two Lands, Psamtik (II)."

There were done for her all the customary rites and all the ceremonies as 15 was done for Tafnut in the beginning. The prophets, the divine fathers, and the lay priests of the temple came to her at all times when she went to the House of Amon, at his every festal procession.

J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, ? 988

3. The Kushite Conquest of Palestine and the 'Assyro - Kushite Wars'


In 716 BC, Kushite pharaoh Piankhy died, and his brother, Shabako, succeeded him. After the Kushite pharaohs had conquered Egypt in 728 BC they stretched their control over to Palestine. Archeological work in Jerusalem revealed more than 200 Egyptian/Kushite weights dating back to the period.1

About this same time, the Egyptian bureaucracy rebelled against the Kushite rule. Pharaoh Shabako launched a strong military force, marched over Lower Egypt, traced the rebels and defeated them, and established Memphis as the official capital of Egypt. In 706 BC, Shabako made his son, Shebiktu, the second person after the Pharaoh responsible for overseeing and regulating the affairs of the colonized Egypt.

Shebiktu maintained a peaceful policy with Sargon of Assyria who was extending the empire's impacts on the Near East. In 704 BC, Sargon died in Tubal, and his death brought hopes of independence to the Near Eastern districts that fell under his empire. Taking advantage of this situation, Shabako, the Kushite Pharaoh, supported the anti-Assyrian rebels including those in Syria and Phoenicia.

One year later (705 BC), Sennacherib succeeded Sargon on the Assyrian throne. He destroyed all the rebellions, starting with those in his homeland in Mesopotamia (including the Babylonian and the Chaldaean rebellions), marched west to reconquer the territory lost after Sangon´s death. By this time (around 702 BC), the Kushite Pharaoh Shebiktu succeeded his father on the throne. Following his father´s steps, Shabikto continued to support the anti-Assyrian movements.

By 701 BC, Sennacherib was advancing from the Syrian Desert west to the north of Phoenicia to attack the Phoenician stronghold of Tyre, which was, at the time, a semi-island off the coast. For some reason, Sennacherib was not able to subdue this city. Tyre was obviously a strong state; it was also evident that it was a close ally of Kush and may thus receive support from Kushite military troops.

An Assyrian stele dating to the reign of Esrashadon - son of Sennacherib - depicted a relatively large figure of Esrashaddon holding two chains that pierce through the tongues of his two prominent and bitter enemies; Taharqa, a Kushite military commander and later pharaoh, and Abdi Milkuti, King of Sidon.2 This stella assert the strong alliance between Kush and Phoenicia against their common enemy, Assyrian.

The Assyrian troops continued to move down the coast chasing the Philistine rebels, including those lead by King Sidqi of Ashkelon , who made an unsuccessful attempt to get military backup from Kush . The Assyrian army thereafter, infiltrated into the Gaza-strip and into the mainland of Judah; then they besieged and subdued all of the big cities of Judah , except for Jerusalem. According to Biblical chronology, King Hezekia, who was ruling Jerusalem by that time, refused to surrender Jerusalem to the Assyrian King for Prophet Isaiah instructed him. Hezekiah ordered to cut off the Gihon spring, the only source of water outside the city walls in order to keep the Assyrians from having water when they got near Jerusalem, in preparation for a long Assyrian siege (See 2 Chronicles 32: 1-5).

Taharqa's minor force, on the other hand, moved toward the city of Jerusalem. Being dispersed and thirsty, the Assyrians besiegers were an easy prey to the Kushites forces. Obviously, the Kushites made their attack from the mountains east of Jerusalem, an excellent location to shower their arrows on the enemy. According to the Bible, as the Jerusalemites "arose in the morning, behold, they (Assyrian besiegers) were all dead corpses." (Isaiah 37: 36). The Assyrian besiegers seemed to have experienced a surprise attack, a strategy the Kushite armies are mostly known for in the ancient world.

The Eltekeh battle ended by the defeat of the Assyrians. Afterward Sennacherib, king of Assyria withdrew to his home in Assyria , though still controlling Syria . There in Ninveh, the capital of Assyria , Sennacherib was assassinated by his two sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer. The two sons then fled away leaving Esarshaddon, as the hare to the thrown of his father.

In 679 BC, Esrashaddon took over Palestine and Judah. After spending five years in subduing Phoenicia , Esarshaddon, in 674 BC, marched with a massive military force and penetrated into the Egyptian border. There, Taharqa, already crowned king of Kush after the death of Shebikto, fought a bloody battle against Esrashaddon and inflicted a heavy defeat upon him. Three years later, in 671 BC, Esarshaddon left a Stele at Phoenicia where he prays to the sun god, Shamash, to support him in his upcoming campaign to retake Palestine from the "Kushite-Egyptian forces".3 This makes it clear that after Esarshaddon's defeat in Egypt, Taharqa had already reasserted the control over Palestine, and that up to this period, Kush was the dominant power over the Palestinian territory.

In the same year, Esarshaddon, King of Assyria, invaded Egypt again. However, this time he was successful to drive out the Kushites as far south as the outskirts of Memphis, the residence of Tharqa in Egypt. There Esrashaddon, ravaged the city and captured Taharqa's strong hold there, with his wife and son in it, however; Taharqa managed to escape the slaughter.

The Assyrians continued to destroy whatever they could find related to Kushite royalty; therefore we do not have the records that the Kushites might have written to enrich our knowledge of this period. On the following period, Kush held to its Egyptian territory south of Memphis, as battles between the two powers raged from time to time.

Seven years later, in 664 BC, Taharqa died on his fifties leaving the thrown for his nephew, Tanwetamani. It is inscribed on a stella at Jebel Barkal that Tanwetamani, at the very beginning of his reign, dreamt of two snakes, representing the crowns of Kush , and Egypt , which he interpreted as a permission from god Amon to regain Egypt, which his uncle had lost to the Assyrians.

In that same year, Tanwetamani invaded and captured all of Egypt . However, this Kushite return did not last more than two years, for on the Assyrian throne Ashurbanipal succeeded Esrashaddon and come to fight the invaders.

Twanwetamani was thus forced to withdraw from Egypt and resided in Thebes , which he kept in hold. Shortly, Tanwetamani had to also withdraw from Thebes further south to the Assyrians.

Herodotus mention's that king Tanwetamani had departed from Egypt in consequence of "the vision of the dream.."(Herodotus ii. 152).4 On the other hand, Tanwetamani recorded on his stele that his invasion to Egypt in 664 BC was a response of a dream vision he had. Whether those dreams were used as propaganda to attain public support or as a sacred obligation, obviously they had a major role on the decision - making process. Any way, Twantemani continued to rule in his territory to the south of Thebes.

In 654 BC the Egyptian Psammetik I liberated both Lower and Upper Egypt from the Assyrians and regained Thebes , expelling the Kushite officials who ran the cult of Amon there, and appointed his daughter as the high priestess of Amon.

The 26th Dynasty of Egypt exhibited a lot of animosity towards Kush . Psammetic, ruler of the 26th Dynasty, had his father executed by Kushite Pharaoh Shabako during the Kush rule over Egypt . In fear of his own life, Psammetic escaped to Syria as a "fugitive"(Herodotus ii. 152), and did not return until 654 BC. In revenge for his father, Psammetic and later his sons of the 26th Dynasty constantly attempted to attack Kush , but were always unsuccessful. Thus, it is not surprising that the 26th Dynasty had finally erased almost every inscription, records, or artifact that belonged to the earlier eras of Kushite rule.

In 593 BC Psammetic II, successor of Psammetic I, waged fierce wars against Kush . Egyptian inscriptions indicate that the Egyptians have inflicted a defeat upon the Kushites at a major battle north of Napata. However, there is no evidence for Egyptian territory advancement farther south.

During this period, the region of Lower Nubia became the no-man's land between Egypt and Kush . Thus, the population of Lower Nubia greatly intermixed with Egyptians as well as other foreign settlers who entered Egypt in previous times. The Jews, for example, formed large communities at Elephantine.


1. R. Kletter, Economic Keystones: The Weight System of the Kingdom of Judah (Sheffield Academic P, 1998), S. Dalley, "Recent Evidence from Assyrian Sources for Judaean History from Uzziah to Manasseh", Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Vol. 28, No.4, (2004): 387-401, and H. T. Aubin, The Rescue of Jerusalem: The Alliance of Hebrews and Africans in 701 B.C. (Soho P, 2002) 155-6.

2 G. Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, ed. A. H. Sayce, trans. M. L. McClure, Vol. VIII. (London: The Grolier Society).

3 For a comprehensive account of the Nubian invasion of Palestine see: H. T. Aubin, The Rescue of Jerusalem: The Alliance of Hebrews and Africans in 701 B.C. (Soho P, 2002).

4 Herodotus, and D. Lateiner, The Histories, trans. G. C. Macaulay (Barnes & Noble Classics, 2004).

5 See: Investigating the Origin of the Ancient Jewish Community at Elephantine: A Review (click here for link).

4. The Napatan State: Nubia as an Egyptian-style Kingdom: 661-300 BC.


1. The Napatan Period

After the expulsion of the Kushite court from Egypt by the invading Assyrian armies, the royal family regrouped in Nubia and consolidated its hold over all their lands south of Aswan. Although their armies were too weakened to attempt another assault on the north, the kings merely ignored their new Egyptian rivals of Dynasty 26 and continued to use all the proper Egyptian royal titles and to maintain steadfastly that they were the true kings of Egypt. By the late seventh century, the continued pretensions of the Kushites to the Egyptian throne must have become intolerable to the new Egyptian kings. Thus in 593 BC, with an army composed largely of Greek and Carian mercenaries, the pharaoh Psammeticus II invaded Kush. His troops met and destroyed a Kushite army south of the Third Cataract, while another force seems to have struck out across the Nubian Desert and launched a surprise attack on Napata, sacking and burning the city and destroying the palace and temples. The Kushite king Aspelta (ca. 600-580 BC), a grandson or great-grandson of Taharqa, apparently fled to Mero´ for safety. After his reign, however, our historical records become very scarce and our knowledge of historical events in Kush becomes very imperfect.

The 300-year period in Nubia following Kushite rule over Egypt has traditionally been known as the "Napatan Period," since it used to be thought that during this period the capital of Kush lay at Napata. It is now generally assumed that Napata was never more than the chief religious center of the kingdom, and that the political capital, after Dynasty 25, was always Mero´, about 170 miles (280 km) to the southeast. Throughout the Napatan period all the royal burials took place in the Napata district - at Nuri, about 6 miles (10 km) northeast of Gebel Barkal on the opposite side of the river. The following period, the "Meroitic", is thought to begin when the first royal tombs were constructed at Mero´, some time after 300 BC. These names, "Napatan" and "Meroitic", designate only cultural phases of the later kingdom of Kush and should not be thought to refer to separate or successive kingdoms.

Although the royal inscriptions of the Napatan period are not many, and although little or nothing is known of most of the kings, the surviving texts do reveal that the rulers traveled to Gebel Barkal for their coronations and to consult the oracle there on matters of state and the conduct of war.

The kings also undertook periodic journeys to all the other sanctuaries in the kingdom for the celebration of important rituals and festivals. Through their generals, the kings waged wars against the nomad tribes of the desert and the peoples of the south. Much of the time, they dwelt in god-like seclusion at Mero´, and upon their deaths, they were buried in huge pyramid tombs at Nuri.

The Napatan Period was an era when Kushite culture rather slavishly imitated Egyptian models in art, architecture, and burial practices, and when royal inscriptions were written exclusively in the Egyptian language with Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. These aspects of culture, in fact, may have been controlled by the powerful priesthood of Amun, who may have seen any departure from "Egyptian" culture as a violation of religious law. The Meroitic Period, which began about the mid-third century BC, was significantly different and is thought to have begun when the kings abandoned Napata as their burial site and began to construct their pyramids at Meroe. At the same time, the use of Egyptian language and writing sharply declines and formal inscriptions began to be written in the native language, called Meroitic, which was expressed in a newly devised native alphabetic script. Similarly there was also a sudden shift away from Egyptian artistic standards, and Kushite culture began to assume a very original appearance.

The radical change in the mid-third century BC was almost certainly brought about by events recorded by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, who wrote that until that time it was the custom of the most powerful priests to send a message to the reigning king, claiming it was from the god; the message ordered him to take his own life. Diodorus states that the custom of divinely-ordained royal suicide was abolished by a king named Ergamenes, who upon receipt of the letter, simply marched to the temple, put the priests to the sword and ordered matters according to his will. The custom of putting a king to death when he began to grow old and infirm is a well-known one in many traditional African societies, since people believed that the king's health and vigor were important to guarantee the health and vigor of the state. Many scholars doubt the truth of Diodorus' account, but it hardly seems coincidence that the first royal pyramid at Meroe belonged to a king named Arkamani ("Ergamenes").

2. The Royal Pyramids at Nuri

The most important surviving monuments of the Napatan Period are the royal pyramids at Nuri. The cemetery was founded by Taharqa, and it was used by nineteen of his successsors and fifty-four queens.

Only five of the rulers after Taharqa are known by any lengthy historical documents; the rest remain shadowy figures known only by the names found on their tombs. The pyramids were erected on a pair of parallel ridges about 1 mi (1.5 km) from the Nile, about 6 mi (10 km) northeast of Gebel Barkal on the opposite bank. Probably because Taharqa was recognized as greatest member of the dynasty, his successors allowed his pyramid to remain more than twice the size of any of their pyramids. It was 171 ft. (52 m) on a side, had a 69 degree angle, and stood originally about 260 ft. (79 m) high. Generally the other kings' pyramids were half that size at the base. Their angles varied, and they stood between 65 and 130 ft (20-39.5 m) high. The queens' pyramids averaged about 30 ft.(9 m) on a side, although near the end of the period the pyramids of the primary queens reached 56 ft (17 m), attesting to the increasing political importance of these ladies. Small chapels were built on the eastern sides of the pyramids (facing away from the river toward sunrise); and within these chapels offerings of food and drink were made to the deceased owners.

The tombs were cut in the bedrock beneath the pyramids, which were constructed of solid masonry. The kings' tombs regularly consisted of three interconnecting chambers; the queens tombs, only two. When well finished, these rooms were completely painted and carved with Egyptian texts from the "Book of the Dead." Each was entered by a long flight of stairs cut in a descending trench in the rock ledge, far out in front of the chapel entrance. After the burial, the stairway was filled in and camouflaged from the ground.

This, however, did not deter tomb robbers. The tombs were all thoroughly plundered in antiquity, but much remained in them that revealed what the burials had been like. All but two of the tombs were excavated in 1917-18 by George A. Reisner and his Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, expedition, and many of the finds are presently on permanent exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts and in the Sudan National Museum, Khartoum.

Typically, Napatan royalty were mummified according to Egyptian fashion; their bodies were wrapped holding gold crooks and flails; green stone heart scarabs and gold pectorals were placed over their chests. Their fingers and toes were capped with gold, and their faces were covered with gold masks (although the only existing examples were found in queens' tombs, where the masks were only of gilded silver).

The vital organs (heart, lungs, stomach, and intestines) were removed from the body and placed in large canopic jars. The royal mummies were encased within carved wooden anthropoid coffins covered with gold foil and inlaid with colored stones set in designs of falcons or vultures with wings seeming to envelop the body. The coffin eyes were inlaid with gilded bronze, calcite, and obsidian. The coffins were then placed within larger anthropoid coffins, covered with gold leaf. In two cases the kings' outer coffins were placed within huge fully decorated granite sarcophagi. Shawabti figures of stone or faience, numbering between several hundred to over a thousand, would be arranged standing around the walls of the burial chambers.

Evidence suggests that the kings were also buried with chests of valuable jewelry, perfume and unguent vessels, and other personal possessions. A large number of storage jars containing food and drink for the afterlife was also interred.

5. Kushite King Senkamanisken


Napata (643-623 B.C.)

From Gebel Barkal, head from Temple B 500, body from B 904

Harvard University-MFA Boston Expedition, April 1916, field no. 16-4-32

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 23.731

With the retreat of the Kushite kings from Egypt, the art of the Napatan empire gains a new dimension. Its characteristic fashion of representing the human form and face were already visible in the works of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. But they were toned down through direct contact with the tradition-bound art of Egypt, failing to come to full fruition.

Once freed, however, from the restrictions of the pharaonic legacy, a style develops in the Napatan dynasty that brings the more "African" components to the fore. Many colossal statue fragments from the original inventory of the great Amun Temple at Gebel Barkal were unearthed in a cache north of the first pylon. This statue of Senkamanisken was one of them. All of the stylistic tendencies of the preceding era come to light here, enhanced and expanded. The forcefully striding legs have become more massive, the feet larger. The arms end in balled fists that bespeak raw power; the musculature is strongly emphasized. The head rests heavy on the short neck, thickset in profile view. The southern facial type is characterized by the full lips, broad nose, the widely spaced, slightly bulging eyes, and the low brow. The double uraeus at the forehead is completely preserved?in the Napatan homeland the statues were spared the persecutions wrought by the succeeding dynasty in Egypt. The Kushite cap closely conforms to the round skull. Around the neck hangs the cord with three ram's heads. Surface areas left rough for gilding or silver plating include the jewelry bands on the upper arms, wrists, and ankles, the sandal straps, tripartite royal kilt, and the cap.

From the book Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Dietrich Wildung, 1997, p. 218

Funerary Figurine of King Senkamanisken

This shabti, or funerary figurine, is typical of the nearly 1300 figurines found in Senkamanisken's pyramid at Nuri, the royal necropolis in the Kushite capital of Napata.

Housed in the Brooklyn Museum

6. Herodotus on Psammetic II


When Psammis1 was king of Egypt, envoys from Elis2 came to see him, who boasted that they had arranged the Olympic games with the best order and all possible fairness for everybody, and claimed that not even the Egyptians, who were thought to be the wisest of all men, could any do better.

When the Eleans came to Egypt and announced why they had come, Psammis convoked the Egyptians said to be wisest. These came together and learned all that the Eleans were to do regarding the games; after explaining this, the Eleans said that they had come to learn whether the Egyptians could invent any better order.

The Egyptians deliberated, and then inquired of the Eleans if their own citizens contended in the contests. The Eleans answered that they did: all Greeks from Elis or elsewhere might contend.

Then the Egyptians declared that in setting this rule they missed the mark of complete fairness: For there is no way that you will not favor your own citizens in the contest and do wrong to the stranger; if you wish in fact to make just rules and have come to Egypt for that reason, you should admit only strangers to the contest, and not one Elean. This was the counsel of the Egyptians to the Eleans.

Psammis reigned over Egypt for only six years. He took the field in Ethiopia, and just thereafter died, and Apries3 the son of Psammis reigned in his place.

Histories 2,160











Picture: Aspelta, forefather of today´s Oromos, Sidamas, other subjugated nations of Abyssinia, and of their brethren in Sudan, namely the Arabic-speaking Sudanese